British Army- The Land Armed Forces of the United Kingdom
History; Founding of the Army; Famous members; Notable units; Structure
Generals 1660-1809; Commanders-in-Chief; Chiefs of the General Staff; Chiefs of the Imperial General Staff

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HISTORY DATA
Pearl Harbor Overview
Pearl Harbor Japs forces
Pearl Harbor Japs Aircraft
Coral Sea
Doolitle Attack
Midway
Guadalcanal
Japan Capitulates
Battleship Bismarck
Normandy Invasion
USN Admirals
Japan Admirals
Torpedo Bombers
USN WW2 Fighters
USN WW2 Battleships
SLS NAVY DATA
Aircraft Carriers
Cruisers
Destroyers
Frigates
Patrol Ships
Attack Sumbarines
Missile Sumbarines
Assault Ships
F-14 Tomcat
F-18 Hornet
P-3C Orion
S-3B Viking
CH-46 Sea Knight
CH-53 Sea Stallion
H-3 Sea King
MH-53 Sea Dragon
SH-60 Seahawk
HH/UH-1N Iroquois
British Army
See Also:
RAF List of aircraft Avro Lancaster De Havilland Mosquito, Vickers Wellington Fairey Swordfish Hawker Tempest Hawker Hurricane Supermarine Spitfire Gloster Meteor LIST OF RAF PLANES WW2 Pre/Post WW2 RAAF Australia Planes - List of Aircraft HMS Prince of Wales Battleship HMS Repulse HMS Ark Royal, HMS Hood Battlecruisers Battle of Crete - Operation Mercury WW2 Battle of Taranto Battle of Cape Matapan Battle of Narvik Battle of the River Plate, Battle of Dunkirk, Battle of the Atlantic
British Army United Kingdom British Armies, Corps and Divisions in WWII UK Order Of Battle Montgomery Field Marshal Alexander Harold, Field Marshal Alan Brooke El Alamein Battle WW2

The British Army is the land armed forces of the United Kingdom.
In contrast to the Royal Navy and the Royal Air Force the British Army does not include royal in its title, because of its roots as a collection of disparate units.


Table of contents
1 History
1.1 The Founding of the Army
1.2 The Army in the 18th and 19th centuries
1.3 The Army and the First World War
1.4 The Army and the Second World War
1.5 Modern British Army
2 Famous members of the British Army
3 Notable units of the British Army, past and present
4 Structure of the British Army
5 Captains-General of the British Army, 1660-1809
6 Commanders-in-Chief of the Forces, 1672-1904
7 Chiefs of the General Staff, 1904-1908
8 Chiefs of the Imperial General Staff, 1908-1964
9 Chiefs of the General Staff, 1964-present



History
The Founding of the Army
The British Army did not exist as a separate entity before the Act of Union of 1707 which united English and Scotland, but its origins date back to the aftermath of the English Civil War. Before the Civil War, the army was raised as required by the King, who would warrant gentlemen to raise companies, this being a direct throwback to the feudal concept of fief where a lord had to raise a certain quota of knights, men at arms and yeomanry. The only difference up to this point in time being that raising companies without a warrant could be considered treasonable (whereas feudal lords could raise their fief to fight each other).
After the Civil War, parliament assumed control of the Army, and standing companies based on Cromwellss New Model Army formed the concept of the first regiments. Cromwell's companies did not yet assume the unique names that came later to be associated with British Army Regiments, instead they would name their companies after psalms or biblical phrases, or were often identified with the gentleman (typically with the rank of colonel) who had raised the company, eg Monck's Regiment of Foot. This particular unit is notable because after the end of the Civil War it was barracked in London, and was involved in defending parliment when it voted for the restoration; this unit is now known as the Coldstream Guards.

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With the Restoration of Charles II the concept of standing regiments found favour with the King. As well as retaining some existing loyal standing units, he raised his own, one of the first being the First or Grenadier Regiment of Foot Guards, nowadays shortened to Grenadier Guards. On Jan 26th 1661 Charles II issued the warrant that officially founded the British Army.

The oldest surviving regiment in the British Army is the Honourable Artillery Company (given a royal charter in 1537), now a Territorial Army unit. It is not considered the most senior, however, because it fought on the side of Parliament in the Civil War and so didn't have unbroken service to the crown. This honour instead goes to the Royal Monmouthshire Royal Engineers, which was founded in 1539. The oldest surviving regular unit is the Royal Scots, founded in 1633.

The Monarch is head of the Armed Forces and is the only person who can declare war and peace, though these powers are exercised today only on the advice of responsible Ministers. The Bill of Rights of 1689 purports to prevent a standing army in peacetime.


That the raising or keeping a standing army within the kingdom in time of peace, unless it be with consent of Parliament, is against law.

No such prohibition applies to the Royal Navy. Parliamentary consent is currently given by the Army and Air Force Acts of 1955 and annual Continuation Orders passed by Parliament.



Modern British Army
In the aftermath of WWII, the Army concentrated most of its combat firepower in Germany. For the first time in its history, it maintained the bulk of its forces in continental Europe in peacetime, after they ceased being an army of occupation. The British Army of the Rhine was formed to control British formations in West Germany. It varied in size during its lifetime, but for a good proportion of the time, it consisted of four divisions, with about 55,000 men in total. Another unusual feature of the formation was that it had a British corps headquarters permenantly established in peacetime as a manoeuvre formation. This was I Corps. Usually in peacetime there are not enough British formations in one place to merit this level of headquarters being established.

The BAOR lasted until 1993, when it was disbanded as part of the Options for Change defence cuts. The Army has not completely pulled out of Germany. 1st Armoured Division is still based in the country.

Since 1962, when the last period of conscription (National Service) ended, the army has been a wholly professional force of volunteers. About one quarter of the Army is provided by the part-time members of the Territorial Army.

The standard issue individual weapon is the SA80, with the variant LSW providing extra firepower.

Notable units of the British Army, past and present

7th Armoured Division
11th Hussars
4th Indian Division
Honourable Artillery Company
Kings Royal Rifle Corps (formerly The Duke of York's Own Rifle Corps and the 60th Royal American Regiment)
Long Range Desert Group
Royal Welch Fusiliers
Special Air Service

Land units of the British Armed Forces which are not part of the British Army include;

Royal Marines
Special Boat Service
RAF Regiment


Captains-General of the British Army, 1660-1809
George Monck, 1st Duke of Albemarle 1660-1670
office vacant 1670-1678
James Scott, 1st Duke of Monmouth 1678-1679
office vacant 1679-1702
John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough 1702-1711
James Butler, 2nd Duke of Ormond 1711-1714
John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough 1714-1717
office vacant 1717-1744
Prince William Augustus, Duke of Cumberland 1744-1757
office vacant 1757-1799
Prince Frederick, Duke of York 1799-1809

Commanders-in-Chief of the Forces, 1672-1904
James Scott, 1st Duke of Monmouth 1674-1679
office vacant 1679-1690
John Churchill, 1st Earl of Marlborough 1690-1691
Meinhard Schomberg, 1st Duke of Leinster 1691-1711
James Butler, 2nd Duke of Ormond 1711-1714
office vacant 1714-1744
John Dalrymple, 2nd Earl of Stair 1744
George Wade 1745-1748
office vacant 1748-1757
John Ligonier, 1st Earl Ligonier 1757-1759
office vacant 1759-1766
John Manners, Marquess of Granby 1766-1769
office vacant 1769-1778
Jeffrey Amherst, 1st Lord Amherst 1778-1782
Henry Seymour Conway 1782-1783
Jeffrey Amherst, 1st Lord Amherst 1783-1795
Prince Frederick, Duke of York 1795-1809
Sir David Dundas 1809-1811
Prince Frederick, Duke of York 1811-1827
Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington 1827-1828
Rowland Hill, 1st Viscount Hill 1828-1842
Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington 1842-1852
Henry Hardinge, 1st Viscount Hardinge 1852-1856
Prince George, 2nd Duke of Cambridge 1856-1895
Garnet Wolseley, 1st Viscount Wolseley 1895-1900
Frederick Roberts, 1st Earl Roberts 1900-1904
Chiefs of the General Staff, 1904-1908
Sir Neville Lyttleton 1904-1908

Chiefs of the Imperial General Staff, 1908-1964
Sir William Nicholson 1908-1912
Sir John French 1912-1914
Sir Charles Douglas 1914
Sir James Murray 1914-1915
Sir Archibald Murray 1915
Sir William Robertson 1915-1918
Sir Henry Wilson 1918-1922
Frederick Lambart, 10th Earl of Cavan 1922-1926
Sir George Milne 1926-1933
Sir Archibald Montgomery-Massingberg 1933-1936
Sir Cyril Deverell 1936-1937
John Vereker, 6th Viscount Gort 1937-1939
Sir Edmund Ironside 1939-1940
Sir John Dill 1940-1941
Sir Alan Brooke 1941-1946
Sir Bernard Montgomery 1946-1948
Sir William Slim 1948-1952
Sir John Harding 1952-1955
Sir Gerald Templer 1955-1958
Sir Francis Festing 1958-1961
Sir Richard Hull 1961-1964

Chiefs of the General Staff, 1964-present
Sir Richard Hull 1964-1965
Sir James Cassels 1965-1968
Sir Geoffrey Baker 1968-1971
Sir Michael Carver, 1971-1973
Sir Peter Hunt 1973-1976
Sir Roland Gibbs 1976-1979
Sir Edwin Bramall 1979-1982
Sir John Stamier 1982-1985
Sir Nigel Bagnall 1985-1989
Sir John Chapple 1989-1992
Sir Peter Inge 1992-1994
Sir Charles Guthrie 1994-1997
Sir Roger Wheeler 1997-2000
Sir Michael Walker 2000-2003
Sir Mike Jackson 2003-present

Text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License

WW2 HISTORY DATA
Pearl Harbor Overview
Pearl Harbor Japanese Forces
Pearl Harbor Japanese Aircraft
Battle of the Coral Sea, 7-8 May 1942
Doolitle Raid on Japan, 18 April 1942
Battle of Midway, 4-7 June 1942
Guadalcanal Campaign, August 1942 - February 1943
Guadalcanal-Tulagi Invasion, 7-9 August 1942
Battle of the Philippine Sea
Battle of Iwo Jima Battle of Okinawa
Japan Capitulates WW2 Japan Planes - List of Aircraft
Battleship Bismarck, Graf Zeppelin
Battleships Tirpitz, Scharnhorst , Admiral Graf Spee
WW2 Luftwaffe Planes - List of Aircraft
U-Boats Types 1, 2A, 2B, 2C, 2D
Kriegsmarine Submarines Types U-Flak, 7A, 7B, 7C, 7C/41, 7C/42, 7D, 7F
Kriegsmarine Submarines: U-Boats
Type 9A, 9B, 9C, 9C/40, 9D, 14
Kriegsmarine Submarines: Type XXI , Type XXIII
Grand Admiral Karl Donitz, Erich Raeder
HMS Prince of Wales Battleship, HMS Repulse,
HMS Ark Royal, HMS Hood Battlecruisers
Battle of the River Plate, Battle of Dunkirk, Battle of the Atlantic
Normandy Invasion, June 1944
Normandy Invasion ,Crossing the English Channel on D-Day, 6 June 1944
Normandy Invasion- The D-Day Landings, 6 June 1944
USN WW2 Admirals, USN WW2 Cruisers List
Imperial Japan Navy Admirals
Japan WW2 Fighters- Mitsubishi Zero
USN Battleships - Indiana Class, Kearsarge Class, Illinois Class, Maine Class, Virginia Class, Connecticut Class, Mississippi Class, South Carolina Class, Delaware Class, Florida Class, Wyoming Class, New York Class, Nevada Class, Pennsylvania Class, New Mexico Class, Tennessee Class, Colorado Class, South Dakota Class, Lexington Class, North Carolina Class, South Dakota Class, Iowa Class, Montana Class
USN WW2 CRUISERS
USN WW2 Torpedo Bomber - Douglas TBD-1 Devastator
USN WW2 Fighters: Brewster F2A Buffalo, Curtiss F9C Sparrowhawk
Grumman F3F, Grumman F4F Wildcat, General Motors FM-2 Wildcat
LOCKHEED P-38 LIGHTNING F-82 TWIN MUSTANG
REPUBLIC P-47 THUNDERBOLT
NORTH AMERICAN P-51 MUSTANG
Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress, Boeing B-29 Superfortress
Consolidated B-24 D Liberator
North American B-25 Mitchell, Martin B-26 Marauder
Junkers Ju 87 Stuka Dornier Do 215 Ju-188
Dornier Do 17, Dornier Do 335 Pfeil Junkers Ju 88
Messerschmitt Bf 109, Messerschmitt Me 262
RAF List of aircraft, Avro Lancaster
Focke-Wulf Fw 200 Condor, Heinkel He 111
Focke-Wulf Fw 190, Junkers Ju 52
De Havilland Mosquito, Vickers Wellington
Fairey Swordfish Hawker Tempest Hawker Hurricane Supermarine Spitfire Gloster Meteor
Operation Stalingrad , Operation Barbarossa
Third Reich Organization and people
German Africa Corps
Field Marshal Erwin Rommel - Desert Fox
Maus (Tank) - Panzer VIII WW2 world largest tank
Panzer 3 III, Panzer 4 IV, Tiger 1, King Tiger 2
T-34 Soviet medium tank
List of tanks WW1, WW2, Modern
Hermann Goering, Heinrich Himmler, Reinhard Heydrich, Werner Von Braun, Wilhelm Canaris, Albert Sper, Walter Schellenberg,
Von Rundstedt, Heinz Guderian, Wilhelm Keitel
Gestapo, 3rd Reich Organizations: SS Panzer Divisions
List of German Navy Ships
GERMAN ARMY WW2 ORDER OF BATTLE
German Tank Production
82. AIRBORNE DIVISION
British Armies, Corps and Divisions in WWII
Battle of Crete - Operation Mercury
Battle of Taranto
Battle of Cape Matapan, Battle of Narvik
LIST OF RAF PLANES WW2
LIST OF PLANES US AIR FORCE WW2
US Army List of Tanks WW2
MODERN USN / WORLD AF/NAVY DATA
USN Aircraft Carriers USS Kitty Hawk, Enterprise, John F. Kennedy, Nimitz, Dwight D. Eisenhower, Carl Vinson, Theodore Roosevelt, Abraham Lincoln, George Washington, John C. Stennis, Harry S. Truman, Ronald Reagan, George H.W. Bush
USS Abraham Lincoln CVN72 USS Enterprise CVN65
USN Cruisers 1 - USS Ticonderoga, Vincennes, Valley Forge, Thomas S. Gates, Bunker Hill, Mobile Bay, Antietam, Leyte Gulf, San Jacinto, Lake Champlain, Philippine Sea, Princeton, Normandy, Monterey
USN Cruisers 2 - USS Chancellorsville, Cowpens, Gettysburg, Chosin, Hue City, Shiloh, Anzio, Vicksburg, Lake Erie, Cape St. George, Vella Gulf, Port Royal
USN Destroyers United States Navy
Amphibious Assault Ships - LHA/LHD/LHA(R) USS Wasp, USS Essex, USS Kearsarge, USS Boxer, USS Bataan, USS Bonhomme Richard, USS Iwo Jima, USS Makin Island, USS Tarawa, USS Saipan, USS Belleau Wood, USS Nassau, USS Peleliu
SSN Attack Sumbarines 1 USS Seawolf, Connecticut, Jimmy Carter, Virginia, Texax, Hawaii, North Carolina, Los Angeles, Philadelphia, Memphis, Bremerton, Jacksonville, Dallas, La Jolla, City of Corpus Christi, Albuquerque, Portsmouth, Minneapolis-St. Paul, Hyman G. Rickover, Augusta, San Francisco, Houston, Norfolk, Buffalo, Salt Lake City, Olympia, Honolulu, Providence
SSN Attack Sumbarines 2 USS Pittsburgh, Chicago, Key West, Oklahoma City, Louisville, Helena, Newport News, San Juan, Pasadena, Albany, Topeka, Miami, Scranton, Alexandria, Asheville, Jefferson City, Annapolis, Springfield, Columbus, Santa Fe, Boise, Montpelier, Charlotte, Hampton, Hartford, Toledo, Tucson, Columbia, Greeneville, Cheyenne
SSBN Fleet Balistic Missile Sumbarines USS Georgia, USS Henry M. Jackson, USS Alabama, USS Alaska,USS Nevada, USS Pennsylvania, USS Kentucky, USS Tennessee, USS West Virginia, USS Maryland, USS Nebraska, USS Rhode Island, USS Maine, USS Wyoming, USS Louisiana, USS Ohio
USN Frigates, USN Patrol Ships, USAF Plane List
Anti-submarine aircraft - P-3C Orion S-3B Viking
USN FIGHTERS
A-10 / A10 Thunderbolt II
F-5 Freedom Fighter, F-20 Tigershark
F-4 Phantom II F-86 Sabre, A-4 Skyhawk, A-6 Grumann Intruder
F-14 Tomcat F-15 Eagle F15, F-16 Fighting Falcon,
F-18 Hornet F-22 Raptor F-35 Joint Strike Fighter
CH-46 Sea Knight, CH-53 Sea Stallion
H-3 Sea King MH-53 Sea Dragon
SH-60 Seahawk HH/UH-1N Iroquois
AH-1 Cobra, UH-60 Black Hawk, HH-60 Pave Hawk Helicopter
AH-64 Apache
B-52 Stratofortress F-111, AC130 Gunship
B-1 Lancer
B-2 Spirit
F-117 Nighthawk
U-2 Dragon Lady , SR-71 Blackbird
RQ-1 Predator
Panavia Tornado
Tornado F3 AV-8 Harrier
Pre/Post WW2 USSR Russia Planes - List of Aircraft
Pre/Post WW2 RAAF Australia Planes - List of Aircraft
Pre/Post WW2 SWEDEN Planes - List of Aircraft
F-22 Raptor, F-35 Joint Strike Fighter JSF
M1 Abrams M1A1 M1A2
M4_Sherman_Tank
US Tank Production World War 2
Battle of Gallipoli
Battle of Port Arthur
Battle of Jutland Skagerrak
Korean War Order of Battle
Australian Security Intelligence Organisation
Canadian Security Intelligence Service
CIA Central Intelligence Agency
World Intelligence_Agencies_List
KGB NKVD
Kim Philby Soviet Spy
MI-5
MI6 Military Intelligence 6 -British Secret Intelligence Service SIS
Mossad Israel Intelligence Agency
NSA National Security Agency
United States Secret Service