Kriegsmarine Admirals:
Karl Donitz, Erich Raeder

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Pearl Harbor Overview
Pearl Harbor Japs forces
Pearl Harbor Japs Aircraft
Coral Sea
Doolitle Attack
Midway
Guadalcanal
Japan Capitulates
Battleship Bismarck
Normandy Invasion
USN Admirals
Japan Admirals
Torpedo Bombers
USN WW2 Fighters
USN WW2 Battleships
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Aircraft Carriers
Cruisers
Destroyers
Frigates
Patrol Ships
Attack Sumbarines
Missile Sumbarines
Assault Ships
F-14 Tomcat
F-18 Hornet
P-3C Orion
S-3B Viking
CH-46 Sea Knight
CH-53 Sea Stallion
H-3 Sea King
MH-53 Sea Dragon
SH-60 Seahawk
HH/UH-1N Iroquois
 

Karl Donitz (Doenitz)

Grand Admiral Karl D?nitz (16 September 1891 -24 December 1980) served as the leader (Befehlshaber der Unterseeboote) of the German U-boat campaign during World War II. Under his administration, the U-boat fleet fought the Battle of the Atlantic, attempting to starve the United Kingdom of vital supply shipments from the United States and elsewhere. He also briefly served as President of Germany following Adolf Hitler's death.

Prior to the war D?nitz had pressed for the conversion of the German fleet to one that would be made up almost entirely of U-boats. He advocated a strategy of attack only against British merchant shipping, targets that were relatively safe to attack. He pointed out that destroying England's fleet of oil tankers would starve the Royal Navy of supplies needed to run their ships, which would be just as effective as sinking them. He claimed that with a fleet of 300 of the newer Type VII U-boats, Germany would knock Great Britain out of the war. In order to deal with the ever-present escort ships, he proposed grouping several subs together into a "wolf pack", overwhelming the defense.

At the time many felt that such talk marked a weakling, and this was true of D?nitz's commander, Grand Admiral Erich Raeder. The two constantly fought for funding priorities within the Navy, while at the same time fighting with Hitler's friends like Hermann G?ring who received much attention. Raeder had a somewhat confusing attitude; notably he apparently did not believe the German fleet of capital ships was of much use, commenting at one time that all they could hope to do was to die valiantly. D?nitz had no such fatalism.

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Role in World War II

When the war started in 1939, earlier than most had expected, D?nitz's U-boat force included only 50 boats, many of them shorter-range types. Nevertheless he made do with what he had, constantly harassed by Raeder and Hitler calling on him to dedicate boats to military actions to operate against the British fleet directly. These operations were generally unsuccessful, while the other boats continued to do well against D?nitz's primary targets of merchant shipping.

By 1941 the supply of the Type VII had improved to the point where operations were having a real effect on the British wartime economy. Although production of merchant ships shot up in response, improved torpedoes, better boats and much better operational planning led to increasing numbers of "kills." In December 1941 the US joined the war and D?nitz immediately planned for Operation Drumbeat against the eastern coast shipping, which was carried out the next month with dramatic results.

Suspecting that the allies had broken the German's Enigma communication code, D?nitz ordered his U-boat fleet to use a new encryption standard for communications between the fleet on February 1, 1942. This, even as the rest of the German powers continued to use the original Enigma, convinced of its invunerability. For a time, this change in encryption between submarines caused considerable confusion for allied codebreakers. Ultimately (due to a mistake in transmission of a single message), it was determined that D?nitz's new machine was actually a four-rotor Enigma, and its methodology was cracked.

By the end of 1942 the supply of Type VII boats had improved to the point where D?nitz was finally able to conduct mass attacks, which became known as "das Rudel," the "wolfpack." Shipping losses shot up tremendously, and there was serious concern for a while about the state of British fuel supplies.

During 1943 the war in the Atlantic turned against the Germans, but D?nitz continued to push for more U-boat construction and technological development. At the end of the war the Nazi submarine fleet was by far the most advanced in the world, and late war examples such as the Type XXI U-boat served as models for Soviet and American construction after the war.

Adolf Hitler chose D?nitz as his successor as F?hrer, a choice that shows how distrustful Hitler had become of G?ring and Himmler in the final days of the war in Europe. After Hitler committed suicide on 30 April 1945, D?nitz became the final leader of Germany as successor to Hitler, ruling through the final surrender on 8 May until his arrest by the British on 23 May at Flensburg. He devoted most of his efforts to trying to ensure that German troops surrendered to the Americans and not to the Soviets, since the Germans feared that the Soviets would torture or kill them in revenge for how they had treated the Soviets.

Trial

Following the war, D?nitz went on trial as a war criminal in the Nuremberg Trials. Unlike many of the other defendants, he was not charged with crimes against humanity, and many historians would agree that D?nitz did not participate in the Holocaust. However, he was charged with being involved with waging of aggressive war, conspiracy to wage aggressive war, and crimes against the laws of war. Specifically, he faced charges of waging unrestricted submarine warfare and of issuing an order after the Laconia incident not to rescue survivors from ships attacked by submarine.

As one of the witnesses in his own defense, D?nitz produced an affidavit from Admiral Chester Nimitz who testified that the United States had used unrestricted warfare as a tactic in the Pacific and that American submarines did not rescue survivors in situations where their own safety was in question. Despite this the tribunal found D?nitz guilty of "crimes against peace", for which he was sentenced to, and served, 10 years in Spandau Prison, West Berlin. Of all the defendants at Nuremberg, the verdict against D?nitz was probably the most controversial; D?nitz always maintained that he did nothing that his Allied counterparts did not. Testifying to the controversial nature of the decision, numerous Allied officers sent letters to D?nitz expressing their dismay over the verdict of his trial.

His memoirs, entitled Ten Years and Twenty Days, appeared in Germany in 1958 and in English translation the following year. Late in his life, his reputation was rehabilitated to a large extent. He made every attempt to answer correspondence and autograph postcards for others. When he passed away in 1980, scores of his former servicemen and foreign naval officers came to pay their respects.

Erich Raeder

Erich Raeder (1876-1960) was the German supreme naval commander from 1928 to 1943, including much of World War II. The first Grand Admiral since Alfred von Tirpitz, he was also the last.

Raeder joined the imperial fleet in 1894, rapidly rising in rank to Chief of Staff for Franz von Hipper in 1912. He served in this position during World War I as well as in combat posts.

After the war he strongly supported Adolf Hitler's attempt to rebuild the German Navy, while apparently disagreeing equally strongly on most other matters. Raeder also faced constant challenges from Hermann Goring's ongoing quest to build the Luftwaffe. Nevertheless he was promoted to Grand Admiral in 1939, and later that year suggested the invasions of Denmark and Norway in order to secure sheltered docks out of reach of the Royal Air Force, as well as provide direct exits into the North Sea. These operations were eventually carried out. A series of failed operations after that point, combined with the outstanding success of the U-boat fleets under the command of Karl Doenitz led to his eventual demotion, and eventually to resignation.

After the war he was sentenced to life imprisonment at the Nuremberg Trials, for waging a "war of aggression". This somewhat dubious sentence was later reduced, and he was released in 1955, later writing an autobiography, Mein Leben.

WW2 HISTORY DATA
Pearl Harbor Overview
Pearl Harbor Japanese Forces
Pearl Harbor Japanese Aircraft
Battle of the Coral Sea, 7-8 May 1942
Doolitle Raid on Japan, 18 April 1942
Battle of Midway, 4-7 June 1942
Guadalcanal Campaign, August 1942 - February 1943
Guadalcanal-Tulagi Invasion, 7-9 August 1942
Battle of the Philippine Sea
Battle of Iwo Jima Battle of Okinawa
Japan Capitulates WW2 Japan Planes - List of Aircraft
Battleship Bismarck, Graf Zeppelin
Battleships Tirpitz, Scharnhorst , Admiral Graf Spee
WW2 Luftwaffe Planes - List of Aircraft
U-Boats Types 1, 2A, 2B, 2C, 2D
Kriegsmarine Submarines Types U-Flak, 7A, 7B, 7C, 7C/41, 7C/42, 7D, 7F
Kriegsmarine Submarines: U-Boats
Type 9A, 9B, 9C, 9C/40, 9D, 14
Kriegsmarine Submarines: Type XXI , Type XXIII
Grand Admiral Karl Donitz, Erich Raeder
HMS Prince of Wales Battleship, HMS Repulse,
HMS Ark Royal, HMS Hood Battlecruisers
Battle of the River Plate, Battle of Dunkirk, Battle of the Atlantic
Normandy Invasion, June 1944
Normandy Invasion ,Crossing the English Channel on D-Day, 6 June 1944
Normandy Invasion- The D-Day Landings, 6 June 1944
USN WW2 Admirals, USN WW2 Cruisers List
Imperial Japan Navy Admirals
Japan WW2 Fighters- Mitsubishi Zero
USN Battleships - Indiana Class, Kearsarge Class, Illinois Class, Maine Class, Virginia Class, Connecticut Class, Mississippi Class, South Carolina Class, Delaware Class, Florida Class, Wyoming Class, New York Class, Nevada Class, Pennsylvania Class, New Mexico Class, Tennessee Class, Colorado Class, South Dakota Class, Lexington Class, North Carolina Class, South Dakota Class, Iowa Class, Montana Class
USN WW2 CRUISERS
USN WW2 Torpedo Bomber - Douglas TBD-1 Devastator
USN WW2 Fighters: Brewster F2A Buffalo, Curtiss F9C Sparrowhawk
Grumman F3F, Grumman F4F Wildcat, General Motors FM-2 Wildcat
LOCKHEED P-38 LIGHTNING F-82 TWIN MUSTANG
REPUBLIC P-47 THUNDERBOLT
NORTH AMERICAN P-51 MUSTANG
Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress, Boeing B-29 Superfortress
Consolidated B-24 D Liberator
North American B-25 Mitchell, Martin B-26 Marauder
Junkers Ju 87 Stuka Dornier Do 215 Ju-188
Dornier Do 17, Dornier Do 335 Pfeil Junkers Ju 88
Messerschmitt Bf 109, Messerschmitt Me 262
RAF List of aircraft, Avro Lancaster
Focke-Wulf Fw 200 Condor, Heinkel He 111
Focke-Wulf Fw 190, Junkers Ju 52
De Havilland Mosquito, Vickers Wellington
Fairey Swordfish Hawker Tempest Hawker Hurricane Supermarine Spitfire Gloster Meteor
Operation Stalingrad , Operation Barbarossa
Third Reich Organization and people
German Africa Corps
Field Marshal Erwin Rommel - Desert Fox
Maus (Tank) - Panzer VIII WW2 world largest tank
Panzer 3 III, Panzer 4 IV, Tiger 1, King Tiger 2
T-34 Soviet medium tank
List of tanks WW1, WW2, Modern
Hermann Goering, Heinrich Himmler, Reinhard Heydrich, Werner Von Braun, Wilhelm Canaris, Albert Sper, Walter Schellenberg,
Von Rundstedt, Heinz Guderian, Wilhelm Keitel
Gestapo, 3rd Reich Organizations: SS Panzer Divisions
List of German Navy Ships
GERMAN ARMY WW2 ORDER OF BATTLE
German Tank Production
82. AIRBORNE DIVISION
British Armies, Corps and Divisions in WWII
Battle of Crete - Operation Mercury
Battle of Taranto
Battle of Cape Matapan, Battle of Narvik
MODERN USN / WORLD AF/NAVY DATA
USN Aircraft Carriers USS Kitty Hawk, Enterprise, John F. Kennedy, Nimitz, Dwight D. Eisenhower, Carl Vinson, Theodore Roosevelt, Abraham Lincoln, George Washington, John C. Stennis, Harry S. Truman, Ronald Reagan, George H.W. Bush
USS Abraham Lincoln CVN72 USS Enterprise CVN65
USN Cruisers 1 - USS Ticonderoga, Vincennes, Valley Forge, Thomas S. Gates, Bunker Hill, Mobile Bay, Antietam, Leyte Gulf, San Jacinto, Lake Champlain, Philippine Sea, Princeton, Normandy, Monterey
USN Cruisers 2 - USS Chancellorsville, Cowpens, Gettysburg, Chosin, Hue City, Shiloh, Anzio, Vicksburg, Lake Erie, Cape St. George, Vella Gulf, Port Royal
USN Destroyers United States Navy
Amphibious Assault Ships - LHA/LHD/LHA(R) USS Wasp, USS Essex, USS Kearsarge, USS Boxer, USS Bataan, USS Bonhomme Richard, USS Iwo Jima, USS Makin Island, USS Tarawa, USS Saipan, USS Belleau Wood, USS Nassau, USS Peleliu
SSN Attack Sumbarines 1 USS Seawolf, Connecticut, Jimmy Carter, Virginia, Texax, Hawaii, North Carolina, Los Angeles, Philadelphia, Memphis, Bremerton, Jacksonville, Dallas, La Jolla, City of Corpus Christi, Albuquerque, Portsmouth, Minneapolis-St. Paul, Hyman G. Rickover, Augusta, San Francisco, Houston, Norfolk, Buffalo, Salt Lake City, Olympia, Honolulu, Providence
SSN Attack Sumbarines 2 USS Pittsburgh, Chicago, Key West, Oklahoma City, Louisville, Helena, Newport News, San Juan, Pasadena, Albany, Topeka, Miami, Scranton, Alexandria, Asheville, Jefferson City, Annapolis, Springfield, Columbus, Santa Fe, Boise, Montpelier, Charlotte, Hampton, Hartford, Toledo, Tucson, Columbia, Greeneville, Cheyenne
SSBN Fleet Balistic Missile Sumbarines USS Georgia, USS Henry M. Jackson, USS Alabama, USS Alaska,USS Nevada, USS Pennsylvania, USS Kentucky, USS Tennessee, USS West Virginia, USS Maryland, USS Nebraska, USS Rhode Island, USS Maine, USS Wyoming, USS Louisiana, USS Ohio
USN Frigates, USN Patrol Ships, USAF Plane List
Anti-submarine aircraft - P-3C Orion S-3B Viking
USN FIGHTERS
A-10 / A10 Thunderbolt II
F-5 Freedom Fighter, F-20 Tigershark
F-4 Phantom II F-86 Sabre, A-4 Skyhawk, A-6 Grumann Intruder
F-14 Tomcat F-15 Eagle F15, F-16 Fighting Falcon,
F-18 Hornet F-22 Raptor F-35 Joint Strike Fighter
CH-46 Sea Knight, CH-53 Sea Stallion
H-3 Sea King MH-53 Sea Dragon
SH-60 Seahawk HH/UH-1N Iroquois
AH-1 Cobra, UH-60 Black Hawk, HH-60 Pave Hawk Helicopter
AH-64 Apache
B-52 Stratofortress F-111, AC130 Gunship
B-1 Lancer
B-2 Spirit
F-117 Nighthawk
U-2 Dragon Lady , SR-71 Blackbird
RQ-1 Predator
Panavia Tornado
Tornado F3 AV-8 Harrier
Pre/Post WW2 USSR Russia Planes - List of Aircraft
Pre/Post WW2 RAAF Australia Planes - List of Aircraft
Pre/Post WW2 SWEDEN Planes - List of Aircraft
F-22 Raptor, F-35 Joint Strike Fighter JSF
M1 Abrams M1A1 M1A2
M4_Sherman_Tank
US Tank Production World War 2
Battle of Gallipoli
Battle of Port Arthur
Battle of Jutland Skagerrak
Korean War Order of Battle