Junkers Ju188 WW2 German Bomber
Engine, Dimensions, Weights, Performance, Speed, Range, Armament, Payload

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At the outset of the war, the Luftwaffe was one of the most modern, powerful, and experienced air forces in the world, dominating the skies over Europe with aircraft much more advanced than their counterparts. The Luftwaffe was central to the German Blitzkrieg (lightning war) doctrine, as the close air support provided by various medium two-engine bombers, Stuka dive bombers and an overwhelming force of tactical fighters were key to several early successes.
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Junkers Ju188

Junkers Ju188 was a German high performance bomber built during World War 2, the planned follow-on to the famed Ju88 with better performance and payload. It was produced only in limited numbers, due both to the presence of improved versions of the Ju88, as well as the deteriorating war condition and the resulting focus on fighter production.
Origin: Junkers Flugzeug und Motorenwerke AG
Models: Ju 188A, D, E
Crew: Five
Final Delivery: 1945-46 (French built)
Number Produced: 1,130
Engine:
Ju 188A & Ju 188D:
  Model: Junkers Jumo 213A
  Type: 12-Cylinder inverted liquid cooled vee
  Number: Two    Horsepower: 1,776 hp

Ju 188E:
  Model: BMW 801G-2
  Type: 18-Cylinder two-row radials
  Number: Two    Horsepower: 1,700 hp


Dimensions:
Wing span: 72 ft. 2 in. (22m)
Length: 49 ft. 1 in. (14.96m)
Height: 14 ft. 7 in. (4.44m)
Wing Surface Area: 602.80 sq. ft.

Weights:
Empty:
   Ju 188E-1: 21,825 lb. (9900 kg)
Loaded:
   Ju 188A & D: 33,730 lb. (15,300 kg)
   Ju 188E-1: 31,967 lb. (14,500 kg)

Performance:
Maximum Speed:
   Ju 188A: 325 mph at 20,500 ft. (6250m)
   Ju 188D: 350 mph at 27,000 ft. (8235m)
   Ju 188E: 310 mph at 19,685 ft. (6000m)
Initial Climb: N/A
Service Ceiling:
   Ju 188A: 33,000 ft. (10,060m)
   Ju 188D: 36,090 ft. (11,000m)
   Ju 188A: 31,170 ft. (9500m)
Range with 3,300 lb. (1500kg) bomb load:
    Ju 188A & E: 1,360 miles (2160 km)

Armament: Typical.
1x 20mm MG 151/20 cannon in nose.
One 13mm MG 131 machine gun in dorsal turret.
One 13mm MG 131 machine gun manually aimed from rear dorsal position.
One 13mm MG 131 machine gun or
twin 7.92mm MG 81 machine gun manually aimed from rear ventral position.

Payload: Typical.
6,614 lb. (3000kg) of bombs internally or two 2,200 lb. (1000kg) torpedos under inner wings.

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Prototype Ju88-B V1, D-AUVS, flew for the first time with the 801A/B engines in early 1940. The fuselage was identical to the Ju 88 A-1, which presented a problem: with the extra power, 1,560 PS, the design could now carry considerably more load than the small bomb bay could fit. An additional external shackle was then added to each wing well outside the engines, although using the rack would seriously hamper performance.

During the summer, a pre-production run of 10 Ju 88 B-0 based on the pre-production Ju 88 A-4 airframes were delivered. The A-4 used a longer wing for better altitude performance, just over 20 m (70 ft) as opposed to the 18 m (65 ft 10? in) span of the earlier A-series, but attention to streamlining and new "pointy" wing tips kept drag to about what it was earlier. The airframe changes moved the center of gravity slightly, so the glazed "cockpit" area was made slightly longer to re-balance the aircraft, while also offering better visibility for other members of the crew.

Service tests were all successful, and the pilots generally lauded the new cockpit design. However, the RLM still remained unconvinced that the small improvement in performance over the existing A-5's and future A-4's was worth investing time in. Instead, the pre-production models were modified as long-range reconnaissance aircraft by removing the guns, bombsights and external bomb shackles, and fitting fuel tanks into the bomb bay.

Several of the airframes were retained by Junkers for further development. One of these was fitted with the slightly updated 801L engines and a small power-operated turret on the extreme top of the cockpit mounting a 13 mm (.51 in) MG 131 machine gun.
[edit] Ju 188

By 1942, it was becoming clear that the Ju 288 was not going to be ready any time soon, and at the same time the Ju 88's were increasingly at the mercy of a rapidly-improving RAF and Soviet VVS. The RLM finally decided that even the small gains in performance in the Ju 88B were worth considering, and asked Junkers for a series of upgrades as the Ju 188.

The sole Ju88 E-0 was modified with several additional guns, another 13 mm (.51 in) MG 131 firing rearward just below the turret, one firing forward through the nose, and the twinned 7.92 mm (.312 in) MG 81Z machine gun in the integrated ventral Bola gondola firing rearward. Two other airframes had their engines and outer wings removed to act as testbeds for water ditching, as it was planned to use the Ju188 in long overwater flights against British shipping. A second Ju188 test airframe was also built up from another Ju 88 A-4, this one including a larger, more trapezoidal vertical tail surface set to provide more directional control at higher altitudes, a feature also used on future Ju 88 models, such as the Ju 88G night fighters. Originally known as Ju 88 V44, this airframe was later designated Ju 188 V1.

In October 1942, the program was given the go-ahead to start planning for production. A second prototype was delivered in January, which moved the outer bomb shackles to a position inboard of the engines. Both started testing the dive bombing system installed in the 88 A-4 in February. The RLM then asked for another change, allowing the aircraft to mount either the BMW 801 or Jumo 213 engines as a complete Kraftei, or "power egg" unitized engine installation, that would simply be bolted on and hooked up. Concerns about the Jumo 213, now years overdue, were offset by this engine's better altitude performance, so it made sense to delay the aircraft slightly if that meant it could switch to the 213 as soon as they became available. The second Ju 188 V1 prototype was flown in at Rechlin between September and November 1943.

Ju188 A & E

The Ju 188 was designed to be fitted with either the 1,750 PS (1,290 kW, 1,730 hp) Jumo 213A or 1,700 PS (1,250 kW, 1,680 hp) BMW 801 G-2 engines without any changes to the airframe. It was originally intended that both would be known as A models, but the naming was later changed: the Ju 188A model powered by the 213, and the Ju 188E by the 801.

The first three production Ju 188 E-1 machines were delivered with the BMW engines in February 1943, another seven in March, and eight in April. A conversion testing unit was formed up in May, and after testing were attached to an operational unit, with the first mission, an attack by three Ju 188E-1s on a factory in Lincoln, Lincolnshire taking place on 18 August 1943.[3] By the end of the year, 283 Ju 188s had been delivered (including Ju 188Fs), and two new factories were added to the production effort.[4] Most operational machines differed from the prototypes only in having a 20 mm MG 151/20 cannon in the nose and dorsal turrets in place of the 13 mm (.51 in) MG 131. The MG 131 I was intended to be used in the Ju 188 E-1 or the G-2. But the heavy armament in the A and E series was the MG 151/20.[5] The Ju 188 E-2 was built as a torpedo-bomber, but was identical to the Ju 188 A-3.[6]
A Ju 188A-3 of Kampfgeschwader 6 being loaded with bombs. Western Europe, 1944

Although the A and E models were to have been delivered at the same time, the Jumo engine was still having difficulties getting into production. Nevertheless, the first Jumo powered Ju 188 A-1 versions were shipped only shortly after the BMW versions, albeit at a much slower rate. By the time delivery rates were finally picking up in late 1943, the Jumo was available in a new MW 50 methanol-water injection "boosted" version that delivered 1,648 kW (2,241 hp) for takeoff. With this engine, the planes were known as the Ju 188 A-2, and started deliveries in early 1944.[7]
A view of the port side of the same machine, with Hohentwiel UHF radar aerials

A modified version mounting a small FuG 200 Hohentwiel sea-search radar set under the nose and shackles for a torpedo for naval strike missions was delivered as the Ju 188 E-2, and with the Jumo as the Ju 188 A-3. The only other difference was the removal of the outer pair of wing bomb shackles.

For all its good points, the Ju 188 was only a small improvement over the Ju 88 it was supposed to replace. The bombload and bomb bay was no larger than the earlier plane, so although it could handle a larger load by mounting externally, doing so hurt performance. Even then the performance was rather poor considering all the effort - only 523 km/h (325 mph) or less. The dorsal turret had only one gun in it, yet the type retained the single-gun flexible position only a few centimeters away from it. In the meantime, the various projects to finally provide the plane with real tail armament were all abandoned.

Delivery problems of the Jumo were never entirely sorted out, and the only model to be built in large numbers were the E series with the BMW 801. Even then so few were available that they were generally given out to Ju 88 units, who flew them on "special" missions where the longer range or better performance would be helpful.

Some 500 Ju 188A and E variants were built up until the summer of 1944, when production ceased.

Ju188 C

It was planned all along to skip over a "B model" to avoid confusion with the original Ju 88 B, but in the original planning the A and E models would both be called A's. The Ju 188 C would thus be the next model in line.

The C series was built to the extent of a single example, by modifying one of the few A-1 machines. To this, they added the new power-operated FA 15 turret in the tail. The turret mounted two 13 mm (.51 in) MG 131s, aimed with a double-periscope (top and bottom) system mounted in the cockpit.

This modification would have greatly improved defensive firepower, always lacking on German designs, but reliability was so poor it was decided to abandon the system.

Ju 188 D & F

In early 1944, it was decided to focus on reconnaissance versions of the A and E models The airframe was modified with the removal of the bomb aimer and the forward gun, and additional fuel cells were added to extend the range to 3,400 km (2,110 mi). The Ju 188 D-1 was otherwise similar to the A-1, and the Ju 188 D-2 fitted nose radar for naval reconnaissance. Similar conversions of the E models were the Ju 188 F-1 and Ju 188 F-2.

Ju 188 G & H

One problem with the Ju 88 that carried into the 188 was the lack of internal room for bomb storage. Both carried the majority of their bombload on the outside of the plane on racks under the wing, where it greatly affected performance. This was to have been addressed in the G and H models, which extended the fuselage downward for more room with the addition of a wooden pannier.

This modification also left enough room at the tail to fit a manned turret in place of the C model's remote-control one. However this system proved to be just as limited as the remote-control FA 15, being so small that only gunners could fit into it, and had basically no ability to escape in an emergency. The RLM rejected the manned design and planned on mounting the FA 15 even if it were unreliable.[6] Oddly, the designs still had the nose area extended under the plane for a rear gunner, when this would no longer be needed and its removal would have greatly cleaned up the lines of the plane.

With the Jumo 213s now being sent to fighter production, the Ju 188 G-2 was to use the BMW 801 only, with the reconnaissance conversion known as the Ju 188 H-2. Neither entered production before the war ended.

Ju 188 R

In the summer of 1944, three E models were modified as night fighters with the addition of radar and either four 20 mm MG 151/20s or two 30 mm (1.18 in) MK 103 cannons in the nose. However, the added visibility of the 188 was not useful in the night role, and because the added drag of the radar washed out any speed difference, the Ju 188 R-0 was not ordered.

High-altitude versions

In 1943, it was planned to upgrade the entire lineup with even more wing area and a pressurized cockpit for high-altitude work. A single basic airframe would be offered in three versions, the Ju 188J heavy fighter, Ju 188K bomber, and the Ju 188L reconnaissance version. All three did away with the under-slung gunner's compartment, leading to a cleaner nose profile, and the bomber and recce versions mounted their loads in a long pannier under the middle of the plane instead of the deeper fuselage of the G and H models.

Simpler versions of these with no defensive armament and even longer wings became the Ju 188S fighter and Ju 188T intruder. With Jumo 213E-1 engines 2,050 PS (1,510 kW, 2,020 hp) at take-off and 1,690 PS (1,240 kW, 1,670 hp) at 9,500 m (31,400 ft), the Ju 188T could reach 700 km/h (440 mph). Operating at this altitude, the Ju 188S could carry only 800 kg (1,760 lb) of bombs.

Before any of these could start production, the entire lineup was renamed the Ju 388, the vastly improved performance warranting this change in name.

Unlike the British and American Air Forces, the Luftwaffe never developed four-engine bombers in any significant numbers, and was thus unable to conduct an effective long-range strategic bombing campaign against either the Russians or the Western Allies. The Messerschmitt Bf 109 was the most versatile and widely-produced fighter aircraft operated by the Luftwaffe and was designed when biplanes were still standard. Many versions of this aircraft were made. The engine, a liquid cooled Mercedes-Benz DB 601, initially generated up to almost 1,000 hp (750 kW). This power increased as direct fuel injection was introduced to the engines. The kill ratio (almost 9:1) made this plane far superior than any of the other German fighters during the war. In this regard it was followed by the Focke-Wulf Fw 190 at 4:1. This plane had relatively short wings and was powered by a radial BMW engine. The Junkers Ju 87 Stuka was a main asset for Blitzkrieg, able to place bombs with deadly accuracy. The leader of the Luftwaffe was Hermann G?ring, a World War I fighter ace and former commander of Manfred von Richthofen's famous JG 1 (aka "The Flying Circus") who had joined the Nazi party in its early stages.
 
     
   
   
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In the summer and autumn of 1940, the Luftwaffe lost the Battle of Britain over the skies of England, the first all-air battle. Following the military failures on the Eastern Front, from 1942 onwards, the Luftwaffe went into a steady, gradual decline that saw it outnumbered and overwhelmed by the sheer number of Allied aircraft being deployed against it. Towards the end of the war, the Luftwaffe was no longer a major factor, and despite fielding advanced aircraft like the Messerschmitt Me 262, Heinkel He 162, Arado Ar 234, and Me 163 was crippled by fuel shortages and a lack of trained pilots. There was also very little time to develop these aircraft, and could not be produced fast enough by the Germans, so the jets and rockets proved to be "too little too late."  

 

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WW2 Luftwaffe Planes - List of Aircraft Junkers Ju 87 Stuka Dornier Do 215 Junkers Ju-188 Dornier Do 17, Dornier Do 335 Pfeil Junkers Ju 88 Messerschmitt Bf 109, Messerschmitt Me 262 Focke-Wulf Fw 200 Condor, Heinkel He 111 Focke-Wulf Fw 190, Junkers Ju 52
LIST OF PLANES US AIR FORCE WW2 USN WW2 Torpedo Bomber - Douglas TBD-1 Devastator USN WW2 Fighters: Brewster F2A Buffalo, Curtiss F9C Sparrowhawk Grumman F3F, Grumman F4F Wildcat, General Motors FM-2 Wildcat LOCKHEED P-38 LIGHTNING F-82 TWIN MUSTANG REPUBLIC P-47 THUNDERBOLT NORTH AMERICAN P-51 MUSTANG Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress, Boeing B-29 Superfortress Consolidated B-24 D Liberator North American B-25 Mitchell, Martin B-26 Marauder
Third Reich Organization and people GERMAN ARMY WW2 ORDER OF BATTLE Adolf (Adolph) Hitler WW2 Victory Defeat Power Luftwaffe History Axis Powers WW2 Pact of Steel Gestapo, SS Panzer Divisions Hermann Goering, Heinrich Himmler, Reinhard Heydrich, Werner Von Braun, Wilhelm Canaris, Albert Sper, Walter Schellenberg, Von Rundstedt, Heinz Guderian, Wilhelm Keitel Field Marshal Erwin Rommel - Desert Fox German Africa Corps Manstein WW2 German Generals Otto Skorzeny (Skorceny) WW2 Commandos Rundstedt WW2 Field Marshal Nazism Fascism WW2 V1 Rocket - Flying Bomb V-1 V2 Rocket V-2 Fuhrerbunker - WW2 Forifications Maginot Line WW2 Iron Cross Flak
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Junkers Ju188 WW2 German Bomber