Battle of Jutland (Skagerrak) World War 1

British / German order of battle, General Naval Tactics, German tactics for Jutland, British tactics for Jutland, The Fleets, Battle Damage Assessment, Losses

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Battle of Jutland


Battle of Jutland also known by the Germans as the Battle of the Skagerrak (Skaggerakschlacht) occurred on 31 May - 1 June 1916, the first and the only fullscale battleship clash during WW1I between the German High Seas Fleet (Hochseeflotte) and the British Grand Fleet. After an inconclusive encounter both sides claimed victory.


General Naval Tactics in 1916
The general idea was that a fleet approaching battle should be in columns moving parallel in line ahead in order to present the minimum target to torpedoes. During the actual battle the fleet should deploy into a single line, abeam to the enemy so that the maximum number of guns could be brought to bear and the enemy could only fire with the front turrets of the leading ships - 'cross his T'. If this did occur it would be largely luck, more likely would be a heavy exchange between two fleets on roughly parallel courses.

German tactics for Jutland
In 1916 the failure at Verdun and the increasing effectiveness of the economic blockade led the German government to try and break (or at the least weaken) the control of the Royal Navy. The German hope was to station a large number of submarines off the British naval bases and lure the Grand Fleet out. The German battlecruisers under Admiral Hipper would leave Wilhelmshaven and hopefully bring out the British cruisers of Admiral Beatty. After being attrited by the U-boats the British would be drawn by Hipper towards the German dreadnoughts under Vice Admiral Reinhard Scheer and destroyed.

British tactics for Jutland
The British were aware of the German plan due to signals intercepts and the Grand Fleet of twenty-four dreadnoughts and three battlecruisers left Scapa Flow under Admiral John Jellicoe before Hipper left the Jade on the 30th May. Jellicoe's intention was to rendezvous with Beatty's force (sailing from the Forth) of four dreadnoughts and six battlecruisers 90 miles west of the Skagerrak off the coast of Jutland and wait for the Germans.

The Fleets
There was no chance that the German fleet would seek an head-to-head encounter with the British. The Royal Navy's superiority in numbers was massive - thirty-three dreadnoughts compared to eighteen German craft. During the battle the actual force under Jellicoe was twenty-eight dreadnoughts and nine battlecruisers, while Scheer had sixteen dreadnoughts, five battlecruisers and six obsolete pre-dreadnoughts. The British were superior in lighter vessels as well. In terms of weight of broadside the British had an advantage of 332,360 lb against 134,216 lb.
This British superiority was countered by certain technical factors - German gunnery was more accurate, their ships had thicker armour against torpedo attack and more water-tight doors, their armour-piercing shells were more effective than the British shells and vitally the British used an oversensitive propellant and their magazines were not well protected. Another serious blow to the British was the exceptionally poor communications between their ships.

The Battle
The German submarines were completely ineffective - they did not sink a single ship and provided no useful information as scouts. Jellicoe's ships proceeded to his rendezvous undamaged but unfortunately misled by Admiralty intelligence that the Germans were nine hours later than they actually were.
At 14.20 on the 31st May scouts from Beatty's force reported enemy ships to the south-east, when light units of both sides encountered each other while investigating a neutral Danish steamer which was sailing between the two fleets, and Beatty moved to cut these ships off from their base. The first shots of the battle were fired when the Galatea of the British 1st Light Cruiser Squadron mistook two German destroyers for cruisers and engaged them. Galatea was subsequently hit at extreme range by her German counterpart, the Elbing, of Rear-Admiral Bodicker's Scouting Group II.

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At 15.30 Beatty sighted Hipper's cruisers moving north-west, Hipper promptly turned away to lead Beatty towards Scheer. At 15.45 with both fleets roughly parallel at 15,000 yards Hipper and Beatty opened fire. Thus began the opening phase of the fleet action, known as the "Run to the South".

The Germans drew first blood. Hipper's five battlecruisers promptly registered hits on three of the six British battlecruisers; nearly 10 minutes passed before the British managed to score their first hit. The first near-disaster of the battle occurred when a 12" salvo from L?tzow wrecked 'Q' turret of Beatty's flagship Lion. Dozens of crewmen were instantly killed but a far larger catastrophe was averted when the mortally wounded commander of the turret's marine gunners ordered the magazine doors shut and the magazine itself flooded, thereby preventing sparks from the fickle propellant from setting off a massive explosion. Lion was saved but Indefatigable was not so lucky. At 16:00 she was smashed aft by three 11" shells from von der Tann, the damage sufficient to knock her out of line, but not realizing this, von der Tann landed another 11" salvo on one of her 12" turrets at near-maximum range. The plunging shells easily pierced the armor and, with no time for the heroics that saved Lion, Indefatigable was ripped apart by a magazine explosion, sinking in moments with all but two of her 1,000+ crew.

The odds had been evened to Hipper's benefit, but not for long. Rear-Admiral Evan-Thomas had finally brought up his 5th Battle Squadron of four "superdreadnoughts" - fast, 15"-armed warships of the vaunted Queen Elizabeth class that would serve prolifically in both world wars. With 15" shells landing on his ships and unable to respond effectively at the range enjoyed by such caliber, Hipper was in a tight spot but knew Scheer's main body was fast approaching and his baiting mission was close to completion. The battlecruiser action intensified again, at 16:25 Queen Mary was hit by what may have been a combined salvo from Derfflinger and Seydlitz, she disintegrated in a magazine explosion with all but nine of her 1,285 crew lost. Viewing this debacle, Beatty noted "There seems to be something wrong with our bloody ships today" to his flag captain.

At about 16:30 the Southampton of Beatty's 2nd Light Cruiser Squadron led by Commodore Goodenough sighted the main body of Scheer's High Seas Fleet, dodging numerous heavy-caliber salvos to report the detailed strength of the Germans: 16 dreadnoughts with 6 older battleships. Simultaneously a destroyer action raged between the battlecruiser fleets as British destroyers meleed with their German counterparts and managed to put a torpedo in the Seydlitz. The destroyer Nestor under Captain Bingham sunk two German torpedo boats before she was herself hit and abandoned as Scheer's dreadnoughts sped by. Beatty decided to head north to draw the Germans towards Jellicoe and broke contact with the Germans at about 16.45. Beatty's move towards Jellicoe is called the "Run to the North". In this phase the superdreadnoughts of the 5th Battle Squadron inadvertently lagged behind the battlecruisers and for a period had to fend off the lead German dreadnoughts and Hipper's battlecruisers on their own. Malaya sustained heavy casualties in the process but the 15" fire of the British ships remained effective.

Jellicoe was now aware that full fleet engagement was nearing but with insufficient data on the position and course of the Germans. Rear-Admiral Hood's 3rd Battlecruiser Squadron was ordered to speed ahead to assist Beatty, while Rear-Admiral Arbuthnot's 1st Cruiser Squadron patrolled the van of the main body for eventual deployment of Jellicoe's dreadnought columns. Around 17.30 the cruiser Black Prince of Arbuthnot's squadron, bearing southeast came within view of Beatty's leading 3rd Light Cruiser Squadron, establishing the first visual link between the converging bodies of the Grand Fleet. Simultaneously the signals cruiser Chester, steaming behind Hood's battlecruisers, was intercepted by the van of the German scouting forces under Rear-Admiral Bodicker. Heavily outnumbered by Bodicker's 4 cruisers, Chester was pounded before being relieved by Hood's heavy units which swung back westward for that purpose. Hood's flagship Invincible disabled Wiesbaden as Bodicker's other ships fled toward Hipper and Scheer, mistakenly believing Hood was leading a larger force of British capital ships from the north and east. Another destroyer action ensued as German torpedo boats attempted to blunt the arrival of this new formation.

In the meantime Beatty and Evan-Thomas had resumed their engagement of Hipper's battlecruisers, this time with the visual conditions to their advantage. With the battle-worthiness of his ships greatly attrited, Hipper turned back to Scheer around 18.00, just as Beatty's flagship Lion was finally spotted by Jellicoe on the Iron Duke. Jellicoe promptly demanded the latest positioning data of the German forces from Beatty.

Jellicoe had been in a worrying position, over-estimating the enemy numbers he needed to know the position of the Germans so that he could judge when to deploy from columns to single line. His choice was onto the western or eastern column, and this had to be carried out before the Germans arrived but early deployment could mean losing any chance of a decisive encounter. Deploying west would bring his fleet closer to Scheer, important because dusk was approaching but they could be caught during manouvering. Deploying east would take the force away from Scheer but gave the chance of crossing the 'T' and Jellicoe's ships would have the advantage of silhouetting Scheer's forces to the west. Deployment would take twenty irreplaceable minutes and the fleets were approaching at quite a high speed. Jellicoe ordered deployment to the east at 18.10.

Meanwhile Hipper had rejoined Scheer and the combined High Seas Fleet was heading north again, directly toward Jellicoe. Scheer had no indication that Jellicoe was arriving from the northwest and was distracted by the intervention of Hood's ships to his north and east. Beatty's 4 surviving battlecruisers were now crossing the van of the British dreadnoughts to join Hood's 3 battlecruisers, as he did so he nearly rammed Rear-Admiral Arbuthnot's flagship Defence. Arbuthnot's obsolete armored cruisers had no real place in the coming clash between modern dreadnoughts but he was attracted by the drifting hull of the crippled Wiesbaden. With the Warrior, the Defence closed in for the kill, only to blunder right into the gunsights of Hipper's and Scheer's oncoming capital ships. Defence was destroyed in a spectacular explosion viewed by most of the deploying Grand Fleet, sinking with all hands. Warrior was hit badly but spared immolation by the mishap of the nearby superdreadnought Warspite. Warspite had been steaming near 25 knots to keep pace with the 5th Battle Squadron as it tailed Beatty's battlecruisers in the run north, creating enough strain to jam her rudder. Drifting in a wide circle, she appeared as a juicy target before the German dreadnoughts and took 13 hits, inadvertently drawing fire from the hapless Warrior. Despite surviving the onslaught Warspite was soon ordered back to port by Evan-Thomas. As Defence sank, Hipper moved within range of Hood's 3rd Battlecruiser Squadron. Invincible inflicted two below-waterline hits on L?tzow that would ultimately doom Hipper's flagship, but about 18.30 abruptly appeared as a clear target before L?tzow and Derfflinger. A series of 12" shells struck Invincible which blew up and split in two, taking with her all but 6 of 1,032 crew, including Rear-Admiral Hood.

By 18.30 the main fleet action was joined for the first time, with Jellicoe effectively crossing Scheer's 'T'. Jellicoe's flagship Iron Duke quickly scored a series of hits on the lead German dreadnought, Konig, but in all as few as 10 of the Grand Fleet's 24 dreadnoughts actually fired shots in this brief exchange lasting only minutes. The Germans were hampered by poor visibility in addition to being at an unfavorable tactical position. Realizing he was heading into a trap, Scheer ordered his fleet to perform a 180 degree turn and flee at 18.33. Amid a pall of smoke and mist Scheer's forces succeeded in disengaging.

Conscious of the risks to his capital ships posed by torpedoes, Jellicoe did not seek chase but headed south, determined to keep the High Seas Fleet west of him. Scheer doubled back to the east, probably in an attempt to slip past the Grand Fleet's wake, instead running into the British again. Commodore Goodenough's 2nd Light Cruiser Squadron dodged the fire of German battleships for a second time in reestablishing contact with the High Seas Fleet shortly past 19.00. By 19.15, Jellicoe had crossed the 'T' yet again. This time his arc of fire was tighter and deadlier, causing severe damage to the Germans, particularly Rear-Admiral Behncke's leading 3rd Battle Squadron. For the second time in less than an hour, Scheer turned and fled, ordering a major torpedo attack by his destroyers and a "death ride" by Scouting Group I's 4 remaining battlecruisers - L?tzow being out of action and abandoned by Hipper - to deter a British chase. In this portion of the engagement the Germans sustained 37 heavy hits while inflicting only 2, the Derfflinger alone receiving 14. Nonetheless Scheer slipped away as sunset (20:24) approached. The last major engagement between capital ships took place as the surviving British battlecruisers caught up with their German counterparts, which were briefly relieved by Rear-Admiral Mauve's obsolete predreadnoughts. As the King George V and Westfalen exchanged a few final shots, neither side could have imagined that the only encounter between British and German dreadnoughts in the entire war was already concluded.

Jellicoe, knowing of the Grand Fleet's deficiencies in night-fighting, hoped to avoid a major engagement until early dawn. He placed a screen of cruisers and destroyers behind his battle fleet to patrol the rear as he headed south to guard against Scheer's expected escape to Ems. In reality Scheer opted to bypass his wake and escape via Horns Reef. Luckily for Scheer, Jellicoe's scouts failed to report his true course while Jellicoe himself was too cautious to judge from extensive circumstantial evidence that the Germans were breaking through his rear. While the nature of Scheer's escape and Jellicoe's inaction indicate the overall superiority of German night-fighting proficiency, the night battle's results were no more clear-cut than the battle as a whole. The Southampton, Commodore Goodenough's flagship that had scouted so proficiently, was heavily damaged but managed to sink the German cruiser Frauenlob. The Black Prince of the ill-fated 1st Cruiser Squadron met a grim fate at the hands of the battleship Th?ringen, blowing up with all hands as her squadron leader Defence had done earlier. Flotillas of British destroyers launched daring torpedo runs on the German battle lines and at the cost of five sunk and some others damaged managed to sink the predreadnought Pommern with all hands, as well as torpedoing the light cruiser Rostock and causing another, the Elbing, to be rammed by the dreadnought Posen and abandoned. Additionally the battlecruiser L?tzow was scuttled after being abandoned by her 1,150 survivors. In addition to Jellicoe's caution, the Germans were helped by the failure of British naval intelligence in London to relay a critical radio intercept giving away the true position of the High Seas Fleet. By the time Jellicoe finally learned of Scheer's whereabouts at 4.15 it was clear the battle could no longer be resumed. There would be no "Glorious First of June" in 1916.


Battle Damage Assessment
The British lost fourteen ships of 111,000 tons total and 6,784 men. The Germans lost eleven ships of 62,000 tons total and 3,058 men. Several other ships were badly damaged, as HMS Lion and SMS Seydlitz. But regarding ships that could fight again at the end of that day the British had twenty-four dreadnoughts and battlecruisers ready to fight while the Germans had only ten, the British still had command of the sea. For the British, the outcome could be seen as giving a tactical loss but a strategic gain. The Germans left the field, the British remained and were ready to continue the next day. On the other hand, the threat from the German navy did not disappear. Contrary to some opinions, it remained still active, though both battle fleets have never met again.
The design and faulty use of the battlecruisers was important in the serious losses of the British. The battle is often regarded as demonstrating that the Royal Navy was technologically inferior to the German Navy. At the time the caution of Jellicoe was also attacked, but it should be noted that Scheer was not seeking a fight and with two fleets of roughly equal speeds it is difficult to decisvely fight an enemy determined not to. On the other hand, Scheer was perhaps lucky in the chances of events and Jellicoe was unlucky and the battle began late in the day.


Losses

British

  • Battlecruisers
    • Indefatigable
    • Queen Mary
    • Invincible
  • Armoured cruisers
    • Black Prince
    • Warrior
    • Defence
  • Destroyers
    • Shark
    • Sparrowhawk
    • Tipperary
    • Turbulent
    • Ardent
    • Fortune
    • Nomad
    • Nestor

German

British order of battle

The Battle Fleet

  • \First Battle Squadron
    • HMS Marlborough (Flagship of Vice-Admiral Sir Cecil Burney; Capt. G.P. Ross)
    • HMS Revenge (Capt. E.B. Kiddle)
      • battleship R class (1916, 8 guns 381 mm, capacity 25750 t)
    • HMS Hercules (Capt. L. Clinton-Baker)
      • battleship Colossus class (1911, 10 guns 305 mm, capacity 20000 t)
    • HMS Agincourt (Capt. H.M. Doughty)
      • non-typical battleship (1914, 14 guns 305 mm, capacity 27500 t)
    • HMS Colossus (Flagship of Rear Admiral E.F.A. Gaunt; Capt. A.D.P.R. Pound)
      • battleship Colossus class (1911, 10 guns 305 mm, capacity 20000 t)
    • HMS Collingwood (Capt. J.C. Ley)
    • HMS St Vincent (Capt. W.W. Fisher)
      • battleships St. Vincent class (1910, 10 guns 305 mm, capacity 19250 t)
    • HMS Neptune (Capt. V.H.G. Bernard)
      • battleship Neptune class (1911, 10 guns 305 mm, capacity 19900 t)
  • Second Battle Squadron
    • HMS King George V (Flagship of Vice Admiral Sir Martyn Jerram; Capt. F.L. Field)
    • HMS Ajax (Capt. G.H. Baird)
    • HMS Centurion (Capt. M. Culme-Seymour)
      • battleships King George V class (1913, 10 guns 343 mm, capacity 23000 t)
    • HMS Erin (Capt. The Hon. V.A. Stanley)
      • non-typical battleship (1914, 10 guns 343 mm, capacity 23000 t)
    • HMS Orion (Flagship of Rear Admiral A.C. Leveson; Capt. O. Backhouse)
    • HMS Monarch (Capt. G.H. Borrett)
    • HMS Conqueror (Capt. H.H.D. Tothill)
    • HMS Thunderer (Capt. J.A. Fergusson)
      • battleships Orion class (1912, 10 guns 343 mm, capacity 22500 t)
  • Fourth Battle Squadron
    • HMS Iron Duke (Fleet Flagship of Admiral Sir John Jellicoe; Capt. F.C. Dreyer)
      • battleship Iron Duke class (1914, 10 guns 343 mm, capacity 25000 t)
    • HMS Royal Oak (Capt. C. Maclachlan)
      • battleship R class (1916, 8 guns 381 mm, capacity 25750 t)
    • HMS Superb (Flagship of Rear Admiral A.L. Duff; Capt. E. Hyde-Parker)
      • battleship Bellerophon class (1909, 10 guns 305 mm, capacity 18600 t)
    • HMS Canada (Capt. W.C.M. Nicholson)
    • HMS Benbow (Flagship of Vice Admiral Sir Doveton Sturdee; Capt. H.W. Parker)
      • battleship Iron Duke class (1914, 10 guns 343 mm, capacity 25000 t)
    • HMS Bellerophon (Capt. E.F. Bruen)
    • HMS Temeraire (Capt. E.V. Underhill)
    • HMS Vanguard (Capt. J.D. Dick)
      • battleships Bellerophon class (1909, 10 guns 305 mm, capacity 18600 t)
  • Third Battlecruiser Squadron (temporarily attached to Grand Fleet)
    • HMS Invincible (Flagship of Rear Admiral The Hon. H.L.A. Hood; Capt. A.L. Cay)
    • HMS Inflexible (Capt. E.H.F. Heaton-Ellis)
    • HMS Indomitable (Capt. F.W. Kennedy)
      • battlecruisers Invincible class (1908, 8 guns 305 mm, 17250 t)
  • First Cruiser Squadron (armoured cruisers)
    • HMS Defence (Flagship of Rear Admiral Sir Robert Arbuthnot; Capt. S.V. Ellis)
      • Minotaur class (1908, 4 guns 234 mm + 10 guns 190 mm, 14600 t)
    • HMS Warrior (Capt. V.B. Molteno)
      • Warrior class (1907, 6 guns 234 mm + 4 guns 190 mm, 13550 t)
    • HMS Duke of Edinburgh (Capt. H. Blackett)
    • HMS Black Prince (Capt. T.P. Bonham)
      • Duke of Edinburgh class (1905, 6 guns 234 mm + 10 guns 152 mm, 13550 t)
  • Second Cruiser Squadron (armoured cruisers)
    • HMS Minotaur (Flagship of Rear Admiral H.L. Heath; Capt. A.C.S.H. D'Aeth)
    • HMS Shannon (Capt. J.S. Dumaresq)
      • Minotaur class (1908, 4 guns 234 mm + 10 guns 190 mm, 14600 t)
    • HMS Hampshire (Capt. H.J. Savill)
      • ? class (1905, 4 guns 190 mm + 6 guns 152 mm, 10850 t)
    • HMS Cochrane (Capt. E. La T. Leatham)
      • Warrior class (1907, 6 guns 234 mm + 4 guns 190 mm, 13550 t)
  • Fourth Light Cruiser Squadron
    • HMS Calliope (Commodore C.E. Le Mesurier)
    • HMS Constance (Capt. C.S. Townsend)
    • HMS Caroline (Capt. H.R. Crooke)
    • HMS Royalist (Capt. The Hon. H. Meade)
    • HMS Comus (Capt. A.G. Hotham)
  • Attached light cruisers mainly for repeating signals between units of Battle Fleet
    • HMS Active (Capt. P. Withers)
    • HMS Bellona (Capt. A.B.S. Dutton)
    • HMS Blanche (Capt. J.M. Casement)
    • HMS Boadicea (Capt. L.C.S. Woollcombe)
    • HMS Canterbury (Capt. P.M.R. Royds)
    • HMS Chester (Capt. R.N. Lawson)
  • Fourth Destroyer Flotilla
    • HMS Tipperary (Capt. C.J. Wintour)
    • HMS Acasta
    • HMS Achates
    • HMS Ambuscade
    • HMS Ardent
    • HMS Broke
    • HMS Christopher
    • HMS Contest
    • HMS Fortune
    • HMS Garland
    • HMS Hardy
    • HMS Midge
    • HMS Ophelia
    • HMS Owl
    • HMS Porpoise
    • HMS Shark
    • HMS Sparrowhawk
    • HMS Spitfire
    • HMS Unity
  • Eleventh Destroyer Flotilla
    • HMS Castor (light cruiser) (Commodore J.R.P. Hawksley)
    • HMS Kempenfelt
    • HMS Magic
    • HMS Mandate
    • HMS Manners
    • HMS Marne
    • HMS Martial
    • HMS Michael
    • HMS Milbrook
    • HMS Minion
    • HMS Mons
    • HMS Moon
    • HMS Morning Star
    • HMS Mornsey
    • HMS Mystic
    • HMS Ossory
  • Twelfth Destroyer Flotilla
    • HMS Faulknor (Capt. A.J.B. Stirling)
    • HMS Maenad
    • HMS Marksman
    • HMS Marvel
    • HMS Mary Rose
    • HMS Menace
    • HMS Mindful
    • HMS Mischief
    • HMS Munster
    • HMS Narwhal
    • HMS Nessus
    • HMS Noble
    • HMS Nonsuch
    • HMS Obedient
    • HMS Onslaught
    • HMS Opal
  • Miscellaneous ships
    • HMS Abdiel (Minelayer)
    • HMS Oak (Destroyer tender to the fleet flagship)

The Battlecruiser Fleet

  • Flagship
    • HMS Lion (Flagship of Vice Admiral Sir David Beatty; Capt. A.E.M. Chatfield)
      • battlecruiser Lion class (1912, 8 guns 343 mm, 26270 t)
  • First Battlecruiser Squadron
    • HMS Princess Royal (Flagship of Rear Admiral O. de B. Brock; Capt. W.H. Cowan)
      • battlecruiser Lion class (1912, 8 guns 343 mm, 26270 t)
    • HMS Queen Mary (Capt. C.I. Prowse)
      • battlecruiser modified Lion class (1913, 8 guns 343 mm, 27000 t)
    • HMS Tiger (Capt. H.B. Pelly)
      • battlecruiser Tiger class (1914, 8 guns 343 mm, 28500 t)
  • Second Battlecruiser Squadron
    • HMS New Zealand (Flagship of Rear Admiral W.C. Pakenham; Capt. J.F.E. Green)
    • HMS Indefatigable (Capt. C.F. Sowerby)
      • battlecruisers Indefatigable class (1911, 8 guns 305 mm, 18800 t)
  • Fifth Battle Squadron (fast battleships - 23 knot - temporarily attached to the battlecruiser fleet)
    • HMS Barham (Flagship of Rear Admiral H. Evan-Thomas; Capt. A.W. Craig)
    • HMS Valiant (Capt. M. Woollcombe)
    • HMS Warspite (Capt. E.M. Philpotts)
    • HMS Malaya (Capt. The Hon. A.D.E.H. Boyle)
      • battleships Queen Elisabeth class (1915, 8 guns 381 mm, 27500 t)
  • First Light Cruiser Squadron
    • HMS Galatea (Commodore E.S. Alexander-Sinclair)
    • HMS Phaeton (Capt. J.E. Cameron)
    • HMS Inconstant (Capt. B.S. Thesiger)
    • HMS Cordelia (Capt. T.P.H. Beamish)
  • Second Light Cruiser Squadron
    • HMS Southampton (Commodore W.E. Goodenough)
    • HMS Birmingham (Capt. A.A.M. Duff)
    • HMS Nottingham (Capt. C.B. Miller)
    • HMS Dublin (Capt. A.C. Scott)
  • Third Light Cruiser Squadron
    • HMS Falmouth (Flagship of Rear Admiral T.D.W. Napier; Capt. J.D. Edwards)
    • HMS Yarmouth (Capt. T.D. Pratt)
    • HMS Birkenhead (Capt. E. Reeves)
    • HMS Gloucester (Capt. W.F. Blount)
  • First Destroyer Flotilla
    • HMS Fearless (light cruiser) (Capt. C.D. Roper)
    • HMS Acheron
    • HMS Ariel
    • HMS Attack
    • HMS Badger
    • HMS Defender
    • HMS Goshawk
    • HMS Hydra
    • HMS Lapwing
    • HMS Lizard
  • Ninth and Tenth Destroyer Flotillas (combined)
    • HMS Lydiard (Commander M.L. Goldsmith)
    • HMS Landrail
    • HMS Laurel
    • HMS Liberty
    • HMS Moorsom
    • HMS Morris
    • HMS Termagent
    • HMS Turbulent
  • Thirteenth Destroyer Flotilla
    • HMS Champion (light cruiser) (Capt. J.U. Farie)
    • HMS Moresby
    • HMS Narborough
    • HMS Nerissa
    • HMS Nestor
    • HMS Nicator
    • HMS Nomad
    • HMS Obdurate
    • HMS Onslow
    • HMS Pelican
    • HMS Petard
  • Seaplane Carrier
    • HMS Engadine

German order of battle

The Battle Fleet

  • First Battle Squadron
    • Friedrich der Grosse (Fleet Flagship of Vice Admiral Reinhard Scheer; Capt. T. Fuchs)
      • battleship Kaiser class (1912, 10 guns 305 mm, 24330 t)
    • Ostfriesland (Flagship of Vice Admiral E. Schmidt; Capt. von Natzmer)
    • Th?ringen (Capt. H K?sel)
    • Helgoland (Capt. von Kameke)
    • Oldenburg (Capt. H?pfner)
      • battleships Ostfriesland class (1911, 12 guns 305 mm, 22400 t)
    • Posen (Flagship of Rear Admiral Engelhardt; Capt. Lange)
    • Rheinland (Capt. Rohardt)
    • Nassau (Capt. H. Klappenbach)
    • Westfalen (Capt. Redlich)
      • battleships Nassau class (1910, 12 guns 280 mm, 18570 t)
  • Second Battle Squadron
    • Deutschland (Flagship of Rear Admiral Mauve; Capt. H. Meurer)
    • Pommern (Capt. B?lken)
    • Hannover (Flagship of Rear Admiral F. von Dalwigk zu Lichtenfels; Capt. W. Heine)
    • Schlesien (Capt. F. Behncke)
    • Schleswig-Holstein (Capt. Barrentrapp)
      • pre-dreadnoughts Deutschland class (1906, 4 guns 280 mm, 14200 t)
    • Hessen (Capt. R. Bartels)
      • pre-dreadnought Braunschweig class (1904, 4 guns 280 mm, 13200 t)
  • Third Battle Squadron
    • K?nig (Flagship of Rear Admiral Paul Behncke; Capt. Br?ninghaus)
    • Grosser Kurf?rst (Capt. E. Goette)
    • Kronprinz Wilhelm (Capt. C. Feldt)
    • Markgraf (Capt. Seiferling)
      • battleships Koenig class (1914, 10 guns 305 mm, 25390 t)
    • Kaiser (Flagship of Rear Admiral Nordmann; Capt. F. von Kayserlink)
    • Kaiserin (Capt. Sievers)
    • Prinz Regent Luitpold (Capt. K. Heuser)
      • battleships Kaiser class (1912, 10 guns 305 mm, 24330 t)
  • Fourth Scouting Group (Light Cruisers)
    • Stettin (Broad pendant of Commodore von Reuter; Capt. F. Regensburg)
    • M?nchen (Capt. O. B?cker)
    • Hamburg (Commander von Gaudecker)
    • Frauenlob (Capt. G. Hoffmann)
    • Stuttgart (Capt. Hagedorn)
  • Destroyers (classified as Torpedo boats)
    • Rostock (Light cruiser) (Broad pendant of Commodore Michelson; Capt. O. Feldmann)
    • First Flotilla (half) -- 4 boats under Commander C. Albrecht in G39.
    • Third Flotilla -- 7 boats under Captain Hollmann in S53.
    • Fifth Flotilla -- 11 boats under Captain Heinecke in G11.
    • Seventh Flotilla -- 9 boats under Captain von Koch in S24.

The Battlecruiser Force

  • First Scouting Group (Battlecruisers)
    • L?tzow (Flagship of Vice Admiral Franz von Hipper; Capt. Harder)
    • Derfflinger (Capt. Hartog)
      • Derfflinger class (1914, 8 guns 305 mm, 26200 t)
    • Seydlitz (Capt. M. von Egidy)
      • Seydlitz class (1913, 10 guns 280 mm, 25000 t)
    • Moltke (Capt. von Karpf)
      • Moltke class (1912, 10 guns 280 mm, 22600 t)
    • Von der Tann (Capt. Hans Zenker)
      • Von der Tann class (1911, 8 guns 280 mm, 19100 t)
  • Second Scouting Group (Light Cruisers)
    • Frankfurt (Flagship of Rear Admiral B?dicker; Capt. T. von Trotha)
    • Wiesbaden (Capt. Reiss)
    • Pillau (Capt. Mommsen)
    • Elbing (Capt. Madlung)
  • Destroyers (classified as Torpedo boats)
    • Regensburg (Light cruiser) (Broad pendant of Commodore Heinrich; Capt. Heuberer)
    • Second Flotilla -- 10 boats under Captain Schuur in B98.
    • Sixth Flotilla -- 9 boats under Captain Schultz in G41.
    • Ninth Flotilla -- 11 boats under Captain Goehle in V28.
Turn-based WW2 naval game, extension to the classic Submarine game (Battleship game) where ships/planes/subs can move. Contains plenty of game missions, game campaigns and 40 ship, submarine, airplane ana port artillery types, with combat maps up to 96X96 large.
 
Fashion Tycoon is a business fashion management game. You'll build your multinational fashion company, destroy competition, hire employees, fashion models and businessman, establish company objects, run fashion shows and brand campaigns.
There is a more than 30 missions with different game objectives. You can hire more than 100 fashion models, directors, brand experts, celebrities.
 
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The user-friendly game engine allows more than 60 unit types, including planet battleships, galaxy cruisers, death-stars, stealth units, star destroyers, air-space interceptors, explorers, planet artillery and radars.
 
 

Important Battles of the First World War


Mons

August, 1914
Tannenberg

August, 1914
Heligoland

August, 1914
Marne

September, 1914
Aisne

September, 1914
Albert

September, 1914
Arras

October, 1914
Ypres

October - November, 1914
Neuve Chapelle

March, 1915
Gallipoli Campaign

March, 1915 - January, 1916
Artois

May, 1915
Isonzo

June, 1915
Artois-Loos

September, 1915
Verdun

February - December, 1916
Jutland

May, 1916
Somme

July - November, 1916
Gorizia

August, 1916
Flers-Courcelette

September, 1916
Gaza

March - April, 1917
Arras

April - May, 1917
Aisne

April -May, 1917
Messines

June, 1917
Passchendaele

July - November, 1917
Caporetto

October, 1917
Cambrai

November, 1917
Aisne

May, 1918
Le Hamel

July, 1918
Marne

July, 1918
Amiens

August, 1918
Albert

August, 1918
St Mihiel

September, 1918
Meuse-Argonne

September - November, 1918
Canal du Nord

September, 1918
Vittorio Veneto

October, 1918

 

World War 1; World War 2 Operations, Weapons Data; Modern Weapons Data; Modern Wars; Combat Organizations
Pearl Harbor Overview Pearl Harbor Japanese Forces Pearl Harbor Japanese Aircraft Battle of the Coral Sea Doolitle Raid on Japan Battle of Midway Midway_Order_of_Battle Guadalcanal Campaign Guadalcanal-Tulagi Invasion Battle of the Philippine Sea Battle of Iwo Jima Battle of Okinawa Japan Capitulates Torch Operation WW2 WW2 Normandy Invasion, June 1944 Normandy Invasion Crossing the English Channel on D-Day, 6 June 1944 The D-Day Landings, 6 June 1944
Japan Planes - List of Aircraft Imperial Japan Navy Admirals Japan WW2 Fighters- Mitsubishi Zero Yamato_Battleship Musashi_Battleship
USN Battleships - Indiana Class, Kearsarge Class, Illinois Class, Maine Class, Virginia Class, Connecticut Class, Mississippi Class, South Carolina Class, Delaware Class, Florida Class, Wyoming Class, New York Class, Nevada Class, Pennsylvania Class, New Mexico Class, Tennessee Class, Colorado Class, South Dakota Class, Lexington Class, North Carolina Class, South Dakota Class, Iowa Class, Montana Class USN WW2 CRUISERS USN WW2 Admirals, USN WW2 Cruisers List List of aircraft carriers List of Ship Types List of Torpedoes
List of German Navy Ships WW2 Battleship Bismarck, Graf Zeppelin Battleships Tirpitz, Scharnhorst Admiral Graf Spee U-Boats Types 1, 2A, 2B, 2C, 2D Kriegsmarine Submarines Types U-Flak, 7A, 7B, 7C, 7C/41, 7C/42, 7D, 7F Kriegsmarine Submarines: U-Boats Type 9A, 9B, 9C, 9C/40, 9D, 14 Submarines: Type XXI , Type XXIII Grand Admiral Karl Donitz, Erich Raeder Battleship Tirpitz
WW2 Luftwaffe Planes - List of Aircraft Junkers Ju 87 Stuka Dornier Do 215 Junkers Ju-188 Dornier Do 17, Dornier Do 335 Pfeil Junkers Ju 88 Messerschmitt Bf 109, Messerschmitt Me 262 Focke-Wulf Fw 200 Condor, Heinkel He 111 Focke-Wulf Fw 190, Junkers Ju 52
LIST OF PLANES US AIR FORCE WW2 USN WW2 Torpedo Bomber - Douglas TBD-1 Devastator USN WW2 Fighters: Brewster F2A Buffalo, Curtiss F9C Sparrowhawk Grumman F3F, Grumman F4F Wildcat, General Motors FM-2 Wildcat LOCKHEED P-38 LIGHTNING F-82 TWIN MUSTANG REPUBLIC P-47 THUNDERBOLT NORTH AMERICAN P-51 MUSTANG Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress, Boeing B-29 Superfortress Consolidated B-24 D Liberator North American B-25 Mitchell, Martin B-26 Marauder
Third Reich Organization and people GERMAN ARMY WW2 ORDER OF BATTLE Adolf (Adolph) Hitler WW2 Victory Defeat Power Luftwaffe History Axis Powers WW2 Pact of Steel Gestapo, SS Panzer Divisions Hermann Goering, Heinrich Himmler, Reinhard Heydrich, Werner Von Braun, Wilhelm Canaris, Albert Sper, Walter Schellenberg, Von Rundstedt, Heinz Guderian, Wilhelm Keitel Field Marshal Erwin Rommel - Desert Fox German Africa Corps Manstein WW2 German Generals Otto Skorzeny (Skorceny) WW2 Commandos Rundstedt WW2 Field Marshal Nazism Fascism WW2 V1 Rocket - Flying Bomb V-1 V2 Rocket V-2 Fuhrerbunker - WW2 Forifications Maginot Line WW2 Iron Cross Flak
RAF List of aircraft Avro Lancaster De Havilland Mosquito, Vickers Wellington Fairey Swordfish Hawker Tempest Hawker Hurricane Supermarine Spitfire Gloster Meteor LIST OF RAF PLANES WW2 Pre/Post WW2 RAAF Australia Planes - List of Aircraft Pre/Post WW2 SWEDEN Planes - List of Aircraft Tornado F3 AV-8 Harrier Panavia Tornado Rafale Fighter Eurofighter Typhoon
British Army United Kingdom British Armies, Corps and Divisions in WWII British Army UK Order Of Battle Montgomery Field Marshal Alexander Harold, Field Marshal Alan Brooke El Alamein Battle WW2 Dam_Busters_Operation_Downwood
HMS Prince of Wales Battleship, HMS Repulse HMS Ark Royal, HMS Hood Battlecruisers Battle of Crete - Operation Mercury WW2 Battle of Taranto Battle of Cape Matapan Battle of Narvik Battle of the River Plate, Battle of Dunkirk, Battle of the Atlantic
Tank Tank history WW1 WW2 List of tanks WW1, WW2, Modern US Army List of Tanks WW2 M4_Sherman US Tank Production World War 2 WW2 German Tank Production Panzer 3 III, Panzer 4 IV Pz4, Tiger 1, King Tiger 2 Maus (Tank) - Panzer VIII WW2 world largest tank Matilda Infantry Tank T-34 T34 Soviet medium tank IS-2_Soviet_Tank, ISU-152, T-35 Soviet Heavy Tank, T-55 Tank, T-62 Soviet Medium Tank, T80 Main Battle Tank, T-90 Main Battle Tank T-72 Tank M60 Patton M1 Abrams M1A1 M1A2
USAF Plane List USN FIGHTERS A-10 / A10 Thunderbolt II F-5 Freedom Fighter F-20 Tigershark F-4 Phantom II F-86 Sabre, A-4 Skyhawk, A-6 Grumann Intruder F-14 Tomcat F-15 Eagle F15, F-16 Fighting Falcon F-18 Hornet F-22 Raptor F-35 Joint Strike Fighter U-2 Dragon Lady SR-71 Blackbird F-117 Nighthawk F117 F-22 Raptor, F-35 Joint Strike Fighter JSF B-52 Stratofortress B52 F-111, AC130 Gunship B-1 Lancer B-2 Spirit P-3C Orion S-3B Viking CH-46 Sea Knight, CH-53 Sea Stallion H-3 Sea King MH-53 Sea Dragon SH-60 Seahawk HH/UH-1N Iroquois AH-1 Cobra UH-60 Black Hawk, HH-60 Pave Hawk Helicopter AH-64 Apache AH64 RQ-1 Predator List of Aircraft Weapons
World Intelligence_Agencies_List CIA Central Intelligence Agency NSA National Security Agency United States US Secret Service Australian Security Intelligence Organisation Canadian Security Intelligence Service KGB NKVD MI6 Military Intelligence 6 -British Secret Intelligence Service SIS MI-5 Kim Philby Soviet Spy Mossad Israel Intelligence Agency Gestapo
Naval Navy Tactics ASW AAW USN Aircraft Carriers 5th US Fleet US 6th Fleet US 7th Fleet USS Ranger USS Forrestal USS Ronald Reagan Supercarrier USS Kitty Hawk, Enterprise, John F. Kennedy, Nimitz, Dwight D. Eisenhower, Carl Vinson, Theodore Roosevelt, Abraham Lincoln, George Washington, John C. Stennis, Harry S. Truman, Ronald Reagan, George H.W. Bush USS Abraham Lincoln CVN72 USS Enterprise CVN65 USN Cruisers 1 - USS Ticonderoga, Vincennes, Valley Forge, Thomas S. Gates, Bunker Hill, Mobile Bay, Antietam, Leyte Gulf, San Jacinto, Lake Champlain, Princeton USN Cruisers 2 - USS Chancellorsville, Cowpens, Gettysburg, Chosin, Hue City, Shiloh, Anzio, Vicksburg, Lake Erie, Cape St. George, Vella Gulf, Port Royal USN Destroyers US Navy Amphibious Assault Ships - LHA/LHD/LHA(R) USS Wasp, USS Essex, USS Kearsarge, USS Boxer, USS Bataan, USS Bonhomme Richard, USS Iwo Jima, USS Makin Island, USS Tarawa, USS Saipan, USS Belleau Wood, USS Nassau, USS Peleliu SSN Attack Sumbarines 1 SSN Attack Sumbarines 2 SSBN Fleet Balistic Missile Sumbarines USN Frigates USN Patrol Ships Submarine
Pre/Post WW2 USSR Russia Planes - List of Aircraft Ilyushin_IL2 IL-4_Ilyushin Operation Stalingrad , Operation Barbarossa Zhukov (Zukov) MIG19_Farmer SU35_Sukhoi SU27_Flanker SU24_Fencer MIG21 MIG23_Flogger MIG25_Foxbat MIG29_Fulcrum MIG31_Foxhound Mi24_Hind_Gunship Ka50_Hokum_helicopter KA25_Kamov_Naval_Helicopter Kirov_Battlecruiser Kuznetsov_Russian_Aircraft_Carrier Soviet_Aircraft_Carrier_Varyag, Largest Submarine Typhoon, Russian navy WW2
WMD Weapons of mass destruction Nuclear weapons Hiroshima Nuclear Bombing Nuclear artillery Nuclear Bazooka Biological Weapons Chemical warfare Korean War Order of Battle Suez War - Crisis October War Yom Kippur
SDI Strategic Defense Initiative Starfighter Starship Space Marines


Battle of Jutland (Skagerrak) World War 1
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