WW2 Transporters - Luftwaffe Junkers Ju 52

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At the outset of the war, the Luftwaffe was one of the most modern, powerful, and experienced air forces in the world, dominating the skies over Europe with aircraft much more advanced than their counterparts. The Luftwaffe was central to the German Blitzkrieg (lightning war) doctrine, as the close air support provided by various medium two-engine bombers, Stuka dive bombers and an overwhelming force of tactical fighters were key to several early successes.
Junkers Ju 87 Stuka
Dornier Do 215
Junkers Ju-188
Dornier Do 17
Dornier Do 335 Pfeil
Junkers Ju 88
Messerschmitt Bf 109
Messerschmitt Me 262
Focke-Wulf Fw 200 Condor,
Heinkel He 111
Focke-Wulf Fw 190,
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Junkers Ju 52

The Junkers Ju 52 nicknamed "Tante Ju" (Auntie Ju) and "Iron Annie" was a civilian airliner and military transport aircraft and bomber manufactured between 1932 and 1945 by Junkers.
Originally prototyped in 1930 with one engine by Ernst Zindel in the Junkers works at Dessau, its corrugated metal fuselage gave a characteristic boxy appearance. Three BMW Hornet engines improved performance and load carrying abilities. As a Lufthansa airliner, the Ju52 could seat seventeen, reaching Rome from Berlin in 8 hours. Export models were also built with Pratt & Whitney Wasp and Bristol Pegasus engines.

The Ju 52 first saw military service in the Spanish Civil War with roles as a bomber and as a transport, including paratroop drops. The Luftwaffe relied on the Ju52 for transport roles during World War II. Compared to fighters, it was slow (top speed 165 mph) and lightly armed, so an escort was always necessary; many were shot down.

While most were destroyed following war's end, a small number was manufactured after 1945 in France and Spain. Some continued in productive service by the Swiss air force until the 1980's. Quite a few are still airworthy and in regular use today


Ju52 Military use 1939-45

In 1934, Junkers received orders to produce a bomber version of the Ju 52/3m to serve as interim equipment for the bomber units of the still secret Luftwaffe until it could be replaced by the purpose designed Dornier Do 11. Two bomb-bays were fitted, capable of holding up to 1,500 kg (3,300 ) of bombs, while defensive armament consisted of two 7.92mm MG 15 machine guns, one in an open dorsal position, and one in a retractable "dustbin" ventral position, which could be manually winched down from the fuselage to protect the aircraft from attacks from below. The bomber could be easily converted to serve in the transport role. The Dornier Do 11 was a failure, however, and the Junkers ended up being acquired in much larger numbers than at first expected, with the type being the Luftwaffe's main bomber until more modern aircraft such as the Heinkel He 111, Junkers Ju 86 and Dornier Do 17 entered into service.

The Ju 52 first saw military service in the Spanish Civil War against the Spanish Republic. It was one of the first aircraft delivered to the fraction of the army in revolt in July 1936 as both a bomber and transport. In the former role, it participated in the bombing of Guernica. No more of the bomber variant were built after this war, though it was again used as a bomber during the bombing of Warsaw during the Invasion of Poland of September 1939. The Luftwaffe then relied on the Ju 52 for transport roles during World War II, including paratroop drops.


Ju52 Postwar use

Various Junkers Ju 52s continued in military and civilian use following World War II. In 1956, the Portuguese Air Force, who was already using the Ju 52s as a transport plane, employed the type as a paratroop drop aircraft for its newly organized elite parachute forces, later known as the Batalhao de Ca?adores P?raquedistas. The paratroopers used the Ju 52 in several combat operations in Angola and other Portuguese African colonies before gradually phasing it out of service in the 1960s.

The Swiss Air Force also operated the Ju 52 from 1939 to 1982 when three aircraft remained in operation, probably the last and longest service in any air force. They are still in flying condition and together with a CASA 352 can be booked for sightseeing tours with Ju-Air.[16]
Ju 52/3m of British European Airways in 1947

During the 1950s the Ju 52 was also used by the French Air Force during the Indo-China War as a bomber. The usage of these Junkers was quite limited.

The Spanish Air Force operated the Ju 52, nicknamed Pava, until well into the 1970s. Escuadr?n 721 flying the Spanish-built versions, was employed in training parachutists from Alcantarilla Air Base near Murcia.

Some military Ju 52s were converted to civilian use. For example, British European Airways operated eleven ex-Luftwaffe Ju 52/3mg8e machines, taken over by the RAF, between 1946 and retirement in 1947 on intra-U.K. routes before Dakotas took over. French airlines such as Societe de Transports Aeriens and Air France flew Toucans in the late 1940s and early 1950s.

A Ju 52 and a Douglas DC-3 were the last aircraft to take off from Tempelhof Airport before all operations ceased there.


Variants

Ju 52
Single-engine transport aircraft, seven built. First flight: 3 September 1930
Ju 52/3m
Three-engine prototype, powered by three 410 kW (550 hp) Pratt & Whitney Hornet engines. First flight: 7 March 1932
Ju 52/3mce
Three-engine civil transport aircraft.
Ju 52/3mge
Interim bomber and transport aircraft for the Luftwaffe.
Ju 52/3mg3e
Improved military version, powered by three 541 kW (725 hp) BMW 123-A3 radial engines, equipped with improved radio and bomb release mechanism.
Ju 52/3mg4e
Military version. The tailskid was replaced by a tailwheel.
Ju 52/3mg5e
Military version, powered by three 619 kW (830 hp) BMW 123T radials. It could be fitted with interchangeable float, ski and wheel landing gear.
Ju 52/3mg6e
Equipped with a simplified radio.
Ju 52/3mg7e
Fitted with autopilot and a large loading hatch.
Ju 52/3mg8e
Fitted with an extra cabin roof hatch.
Ju 52/3mg9e
Late production version, fitted with strengthened landing gear and glider towing gear.
Ju 52/3mg10e
Similar to the Ju 52/3mg9e, but it could be fitted with floats or wheels.
Ju 52/3mg11e
No details are known.
Ju 52/3mg12e
Powered by three BMW 123L radials.
Ju 52/3m12e
Some Ju 52/3mg12s were sent to Luft Hansa.
Ju 52/3mg13e
No details are known.
Ju 52/3mg14e
this was the last German production version.
A.A.C. 1 Toucan
Post-war French version, 415 built.
CASA 352
Post-war Spanish version, 106 built.
CASA 352L
Spanish version with Spanish ENMA (ex-Elizalde) Beta B-4 engines, 64 built.]
C-79
Designation assigned to a single example operated by the United States Army Air Forces.
T2B
Designation used by the Spanish Air Force.

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Unlike the British and American Air Forces, the Luftwaffe never developed four-engine bombers in any significant numbers, and was thus unable to conduct an effective long-range strategic bombing campaign against either the Russians or the Western Allies. The Messerschmitt Bf 109 was the most versatile and widely-produced fighter aircraft operated by the Luftwaffe and was designed when biplanes were still standard. Many versions of this aircraft were made. The engine, a liquid cooled Mercedes-Benz DB 601, initially generated up to almost 1,000 hp (750 kW). This power increased as direct fuel injection was introduced to the engines. The kill ratio (almost 9:1) made this plane far superior than any of the other German fighters during the war. In this regard it was followed by the Focke-Wulf Fw 190 at 4:1. This plane had relatively short wings and was powered by a radial BMW engine. The Junkers Ju 87 Stuka was a main asset for Blitzkrieg, able to place bombs with deadly accuracy. The leader of the Luftwaffe was Hermann G?ring, a World War I fighter ace and former commander of Manfred von Richthofen's famous JG 1 (aka "The Flying Circus") who had joined the Nazi party in its early stages.
 
     
   
   
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In the summer and autumn of 1940, the Luftwaffe lost the Battle of Britain over the skies of England, the first all-air battle. Following the military failures on the Eastern Front, from 1942 onwards, the Luftwaffe went into a steady, gradual decline that saw it outnumbered and overwhelmed by the sheer number of Allied aircraft being deployed against it. Towards the end of the war, the Luftwaffe was no longer a major factor, and despite fielding advanced aircraft like the Messerschmitt Me 262, Heinkel He 162, Arado Ar 234, and Me 163 was crippled by fuel shortages and a lack of trained pilots. There was also very little time to develop these aircraft, and could not be produced fast enough by the Germans, so the jets and rockets proved to be "too little too late."





Glossary Of German Terms

Abschuss "Shootdown"--an air victory.
Alarmstart Scramble.
Ami slang for American.
Blitzkrieg "lightning war"-
dicke Autos "fat cars"--enemy heavy bombers.
Einsatzfruede love of combat.
Einsatzstaffel operational Staffel (of a training unit.).
Endausbildungstaffel operational training squadron.
Endgueltige Vernichtung final destruction of an already-culled aircraft.
Ergaenzungsgruppe (ErgGr) advanced training group.
Ergaenzungsstaffel (ErgSt) advanced training squadron.
Erprobungsgruppe (EprGr) operational test group.
Erprobungsstaffel (EprSt) operational test squadron.
Experte a fighter pilot proficient in aerial combat; the Allied Ace.
Fliegerdivision (FD) air division--a higher command containing several types of flying units.
Fliegerfuehrer (Flifue) aircraft command/control unit or it's commander. In the case of isolated theatres, the theatre air commander..
Fliegerkorps (FG) air corps--a higher command containing several Fliegerdivisonen.
Flugzeugfuehrer pilot.
Freie Jagd "free hunt"--a fighter sweep without ground control.
Fuehrer leader.
Fuehrungsstaffel leader's squadron.
Fuehrungsverband lead formation.
General der Jagdflieger (GdJ) General of the Fighter Arms; a staff position in the RLM. Werner Moelders and Adolf Galland were the most prominent holders of this position.
Geschwader wing (pl. Geschwader)--the largest mobile, homogeneous Luftwaffe flying unit.
Geschwaderkommodore wing commodore--usually a Major, Oberstleutenant, or Oberst in rank.
Gruppe (Gr) group (pl. Gruppen)--basic Luftwaffe combat and administrative unit.
Gruppenkommandeur group commander--usually a Haptmann, Major, or Oberstleutnant in rank.
Herausschuss "shhot out" (cull)--to damage a bomber sufficiently to seperate it from it's formation.
Himmelfahrtskommando "mission to heaven"--suicide mission.
Holzauge "wooden eye"--the last airplane in a formation.
Horrido hunters' or pilots' cry of victory. St. Horridus was the patron saint of hunters and fighter pilots.
Indianer "Indians"--enemy fighters.
Jabostaffel fighter-bomber squadron.
Jaeger originally hunter, now fighter pilot.
Jaegerschreck :fear of fighter"--a derogatory term coined in Goering's headquarters.
Jagdbomber (Jabo) fighter-bomber.
Jagddivision (JD) fighter division; could command one or more Jafue or Jagdgeschwader.
Jagdflieger fighter pilots.
Jagdfliegerfuehrer (Jafue) fighter command/control unit or it's commander. Tha Jafue originated as administrative units but evolved into operational control units during the war.
Jagdgeschwader (JG) fighter wing, commanding three or four Gruppen.
Jagdgruppe (JGr) fighter group, containing three or four Staffeln.
Jagdkorps fighter corps; commanded one or more Jagddivisionen.
Jagdschutz "fighter protection"--generally, apatrol of a section of front, rather than an escort mission.
Jagdstaffel fighter squadron, originally containg twelve aircraft (three Schwaerme). It's authorized strength was increased to sixteen in 1943.
Jagdverband (JV) fighter unit. The term was only used for JV 44, the Gruppe of jet fighters commanded by General Adolf Galland in 1945.
Jagdwaffe fighter arm or fighter force.
Kampfgeschwader (KG) bomber wing.
Kanalfront the (English) channel front.
Kanalgeschwader the geschwader serving on the English Channel (JG 2 and JG 26).
Kanaljaeger fighter pilot(s) based near the channel.
Kapitaen "captain"--a Staffel command position rather than a rank.
Katschmarek a sland term for a wingman--originally a derogatory term for a dim-witted infantry recruit.
Kette flight of three aircraft.
Kommandeur "commander"--a Gruppe command position rather than a rank.
Kommodore "commodore"--A Geschwader command position rather than a rank.
Luftflotte (LF) "air fleet"--corresponded to a numbered American Air Force.
Luftwaffe "air force"--refers to German Air Force.
Luftwaffenkommando (Lkdo) air command-a small or down-graded Luftflotte.
Nachtjagdkommando night fighting detatchment.
Nachwuchs "new growth"--a late-war replacement pilot.
Oberwerkmeister line chief.
Pulk combat box-an American heavy bomber formation.
Reich "empire"--Hitler's Germany was the Third Reich.
Reichsluftfahrtministerium (RLM) German Air Minitry; Goering's headquarters, it controlled all aspects of German aviation.
Reichsverteidigung (RVT) organization responsible for the air defence of Germany.
Rotte tactical element of two aircraft.
Rottenflieger wingman, the second man in a Rotte.
Rottenfuehrer leader of an element of two aircraft.
Schnellkampfgeschwader (SKG) fast bomber wing.
Schwarm flight of four aircraft (pl Schwaerme); all German fighter formations were made up of units of Schwaerme.
Schwarmfuehrer flight leader.
Sitzkrieg "sitting war"--the "phony war" in western Europe between September 1939 and April 1940.
Stab staff.
Stabsschwarm staff flight.
Staffel (St) squadron (pl. Staffeln).
Staffelfuehrer squadron leader (temporary or probationary).
Staffelkapitaen squadron leader--usually a Leutnant, OberLeutnant or Hauptmann.
Stukageschwader (Stg) dive-bomber wing.
Tommy German slang for Englishman.
Valhalla a large formation of aircraft.
Zerstoerer "destroyer" (heavy fighter)--Bf 110 or Me 410 twin-engined fighter.
Zerstoerergeschwader (ZG) heavy fighter wing.
Zerstoerergruppe (ZGr) heavy fighter group.

 

 

World War 1; World War 2 Operations, Weapons Data; Modern Weapons Data; Modern Wars; Combat Organizations
WW2 Luftwaffe Planes - List of Aircraft Junkers Ju 87 Stuka Dornier Do 215 Junkers Ju-188 Dornier Do 17, Dornier Do 335 Pfeil Junkers Ju 88 Messerschmitt Bf 109, Messerschmitt Me 262 Focke-Wulf Fw 200 Condor, Heinkel He 111 Focke-Wulf Fw 190, Junkers Ju 52
LIST OF PLANES US AIR FORCE WW2 USN WW2 Torpedo Bomber - Douglas TBD-1 Devastator USN WW2 Fighters: Brewster F2A Buffalo, Curtiss F9C Sparrowhawk Grumman F3F, Grumman F4F Wildcat, General Motors FM-2 Wildcat LOCKHEED P-38 LIGHTNING F-82 TWIN MUSTANG REPUBLIC P-47 THUNDERBOLT NORTH AMERICAN P-51 MUSTANG Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress, Boeing B-29 Superfortress Consolidated B-24 D Liberator North American B-25 Mitchell, Martin B-26 Marauder
Third Reich Organization and people GERMAN ARMY WW2 ORDER OF BATTLE Adolf (Adolph) Hitler WW2 Victory Defeat Power Luftwaffe History Axis Powers WW2 Pact of Steel Gestapo, SS Panzer Divisions Hermann Goering, Heinrich Himmler, Reinhard Heydrich, Werner Von Braun, Wilhelm Canaris, Albert Sper, Walter Schellenberg, Von Rundstedt, Heinz Guderian, Wilhelm Keitel Field Marshal Erwin Rommel - Desert Fox German Africa Corps Manstein WW2 German Generals Otto Skorzeny (Skorceny) WW2 Commandos Rundstedt WW2 Field Marshal Nazism Fascism WW2 V1 Rocket - Flying Bomb V-1 V2 Rocket V-2 Fuhrerbunker - WW2 Forifications Maginot Line WW2 Iron Cross Flak
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WW2 Transporters - Luftwaffe Junkers Ju 52